Benefit of biopori holes in the ground

Have we heard of biopori? Biopori meaning is really a small hole in the ground formed by the movement of things (bio) that I live. As we know that in many lands to his creatures, from worms to microbes. Well, creature who moves to live here to there which causes the formation of small holes in the ground.

Then, what is the benefit of biopori holes in the ground? biopori holes is useful for storing water. So, when it rains, the water is easily absorbed in the soil that has lots of holes biopori. When the dry season, the land around the House so that no one drought, having sufficient water reserves.

Since ago biopori is a worm hole and his friends, in other words, the hole was formed naturally? Exactly. But we can help to make more holes biopores our home page. We give food for what will come in mass to the main page of our land and forming a hole biopori hopefully. The food is organic waste such as used vegetable, food, leftover fruit, the results of cut grass, or dry leaves.

Organic waste put in the hole eventually will turn into compost. Therefore, the hole we have created also serves as a composting plant. This fertilizer can be harvested from the hole once every 3 months. All we can free fertilizer for the garden. Don’t forget after the harvest of the compost, must be to introduce the new organic waste into the hole to feed the microbes in the soil. Would therefore, a biopori hole that we do there are many benefits. To save water, prevent flooding,  compost.

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Understanding and Engaging Development in Youth

Youth or adolescence are seen and understood as a recognised stage of human development. “The developmental tasks of a particular life stage are those skills, knowledge and functions that a person must acquire or master in order successfully to move to the following stage” (Heaven, 2001, p. 5). Youth development encompasses the period of human development from ages 13 to 24 but with growing boundaries to these parameters.

It is the last stage of life a person goes through before they are considered an adult and it occurs with everybody. “Each adolescent reaches a point when it is not possible to continue living out the same life patterns he or she did as a child” (Cobb, 2010, p. 22). Young people are in many ways forced into the process of becoming an adult through natural forces such as puberty, cognitive growth and social expectations. These forces place upon young people new developmental tasks and questions that they have not had to deal with up to this point.

For an adolescent at the start of the 21st century these tasks and questions are even more difficult than ever. Young people today are confronted with a growing and changing understanding of what it means to be an adult and the issues they are challenged with. Adolescence is much longer than previous generations; the average age for menarche is lower than before, more young people undergo post-school training (thus more dependent on their parents for longer), the erosion of family and social support networks and easy access to drugs, alcohol and other life threatening substances (Heaven, 2001).

No matter what their circumstances are, fundamentally being an adolescent is a time in life where they are trying to answer questions about themselves and about the wider world they are part of. Erikson (Erikson, 1968, p. 165) states that ‘a crucial aspect of development during these years is attaining a sense of psychological well-being, a sense of knowing where one is going”.

McLaren refers to two key questions that all young people are seeking to answer. These are ‘Who am I?’ and ‘Where am I going?’ (McLaren, 2002). It as young people answer these questions that they start to form their identity and understand their uniqueness. “This means that as teenagers mature, they come to the realisation that they differ from others in important and fundamental ways” (Heaven, 2001, p. 26)
Forming an identity is an over-riding focus of youth development but what creating identity looks like at different stages of adolescence is important to understand.

Heaven (Heaven, 2001, pp. 32 -33) talks about four stages of identity status. These are: Identity diffusion (not yet made personal commitments to a set of beliefs, values and occupations), identity foreclosure (made personal commitment to certain values, beliefs, acceptable behaviours and study or occupation – but have not faced a crisis causing them to struggle and consider different alternatives), identity moratorium (may be experiencing a crisis, but have not yet made choices or a personal commitment) and identity achievement (maturity and identity formation. Identity crises have been successfully resolved).

To help answer the questions young people have about their identity, they seek to fulfil various tasks that are considered essential to becoming an adult. These tasks are the understandings and activities identified as part of the development processes that a youth goes through. As young people gain confidence and ability in performing these developmental tasks then they naturally gain the answers to the fundamental questions they have about their identity and sense of place.

It is therefore important to be able to identify, evaluate and measure what these development tasks so that it can be ascertained how well a young person is doing in their journey towards being an adult and forming their identity. Kress (Kress, 2006, p. 46) states that “while growth (physical) is a critical issue, in youth development we try to understand and pay attention to the needs that accompany development”. Thus development in adolescents is not a list to tick off but instead it gives signals to how a young person is attaining these developmental tasks, and therefore gaining a strong sense of identity.

Within the study of youth development there are two basic needs of young people. There are those needs that can be met and fulfilled (referred to as deficit needs) and those needs that are unmet and therefore drive the desire to develop (being needs) (Kress, 2006). What this means is that often a young person will only seek after the being needs after their fulfilled needs are met. This is vital in understanding what youth development is but also when and how certain aspects of development are encouraged. The reality is that a young person will not respond to aspects of development that do not directly meet a felt need because that is not where their attention and focus is.

These important understandings about how youth develop must be kept in mind when seeking to determine what ‘youth development’ is, There are many descriptions of what youth development is and they all have similar ideas of what the developmental tasks are that young people need to achieve. “The developmental framework assumes a set path, which all young people will inevitably experience, principally because of their age, and which is characterised by a suite of developmental milestones”(Carson, 2000, p. 20). Some of these tasks have a focus on the areas in life that are critical to the young person’s social and psychological growth.

These key developmental tasks for young people include things like physical and sexual development, emotional development, social development, cognitive and moral development and faith development. These are all to do with developing aspects of what it means to be human and recognised skills that are part of being an adult.

Under physical and sexual development comes the transition of puberty, where children are transformed into sexually and physically mature adults. This transition happens to all young people no matter their background and culture and is the universal change that all adolescents go through of all developmental tasks (Cobb, 2010). Puberty is a marker that adolescence has begun for a young person and the process takes between two and four years.

Cognitive and moral development is the process when a young person seeks to take on understanding and thinking that an adult has while retaining a sense of who they are. “The task facing adolescents is to forge a stable identity, to achieve a sense of themselves that transcends the many changes in their experiences and roles” (Cobb, 2010, p. 22). Young people begin to become more aware of themselves and their relationship with people around them. With this awareness comes the need to be more responsible for one’s actions and interactions with other people.

Social development is about developing a strong sense of self and a high level of self-sufficiency that leads to them identifying their place in their family and in society through their relationships with other people. “Greater ability for abstract thinking makes it possible for adolescents to think about and talk about abstract qualities in their relationships – affection, loyalty, and trust for example” (Arnett, 2007, p. 217). The focus is on developing a set of skills that enhance a young person’s ability to achieve social and interpersonal goals such as establishing and maintaining social relationships (Delgado, 2002).

Each of these developmental tasks that have been identified can be broken down into sub-tasks. An example of this is that within cognitive and social development there can be identified specific tasks such as the ability to grasp abstract concepts, the ability to imagine possibilities and the ability to employ logic and reason (YouthTrain 2005).

Carr-Gregg and Shale (Carr-Gregg, 2002) expand these developmental tasks into a wider framework of development that help give parameters to these tasks. Their list includes forming a secure and positive identity, achieving independence from adult carers and parents, establishing love objects outside the family and finding a place in the world by establishing career direction and economic independence.

These frameworks provide meaning to what it means to be an adult. As McLaren points out though “adult status tends to be judged more by external factors such as graduation from tertiary education, taking on a job, moving out of the family home, becoming financially independent or even early parenthood” (McLaren, 2002, p. 19). Even though a number of these tasks are to do with developing emotional and cognitive abilities, society tends to acknowledge a person as an adult by the tasks they achieve rather than the thinking and attitude of that person.

Society also tends to put an adult view of what youth development means but young people themselves may have different views. Young people have ideas such as “a programme that helps me better prepare myself for the world” and “youth development helps me better understand myself and those around me” and “youth development allows young people to gain control over their lives” (Delgado, 2002, p. 45). Young people need to be included in the discussion about what youth development is and how it is achieved otherwise they become observers and not participants in their own journey.

Though there is a general consensus around the developmental tasks that young people need to achieve in the process of becoming an adult, there is a wide variance in the ages in which these tasks are achieved among young people. “These tasks are undertaken at different stages of adolescence and there are no clear beginnings or endings for any of them” (Grose, 2005, p. 130). While most of these tasks are not achieved until around the mid twenties there are wide differences in the ages of when young people fulfil these tasks.

Some of these variances are due to the personal, cultural and socio-economic background of a young person. For instance, if a young person stays in education longer, then there is much more chance that they will establish personal and economic independence at a later stage. Generally in the Western world the age in which young people achieve these developmental tasks is getting older and older (Grose, 2005) as young people depend on their parents much longer for financial and emotional support.

How and when young people in the majority world achieve these developmental tasks is impacted by their local cultures and how much their lives have been impacted by global culture. “Thus, developmental tasks are not fixed, do not apply equally to all youth and, to some extent, reflect the culture within which the adolescent lives” (Heaven, 2001, p. 6). Some of these cultural contexts are the length of education, the size of their family, occupational possibilities and the cultural beliefs about women’s roles (Arnett, 2007).
While young people in the majority world are still very much influenced by the local culture they are part of, they are increasingly influenced by global culture. If young people in the majority world are increasingly influenced in their lifestyle, education and employment opportunities then they may also take longer to achieve the developmental tasks.

To help give increased understanding to development in youth requires a framework that all study and evaluation fits under. This is important because all evaluation has certain presumptions built in and having a framework provides a basis of study. One key framework is ‘Developmental Contextualism’. Coleman and Hendry (Coleman, 1999) give understanding to this concept by giving some key aspects. These are:
– There is a human ecology, or context of human development
– There is a continuity to human development
– Individuals and their families reciprocally influence each other
– A multi-disciplinary approach must be taken to study human development
– Individuals are producers of their own development
– When studying person-context interaction we should consider the notion of goodness of fit

Developmental contextualism acknowledges that youth do not develop in a vacuum. Youth are part of a wider context that supports and influences their ability to complete the developmental tasks. McLaren (McLaren, 2002, p. 21) states “Mastering these tasks is not an individual effort, but involves support from family, friends, school and significant people in the neighbourhood and community”. It is recognition that young people are part of many communities that all bring influence and direction to young people.

Delgado acknowledges the influence and role of the wider community that young people grow up in when he states “The youth development approach works best when a community as a whole agrees upon the standards for what young people need to grow into happy and healthy adults and then creates a continuum of care and opportunities to meet those needs” (Delgado, 2002, p. 35). These communities may include school, sports or social club, friends, wider family, and religious organisations.

This framework also recognises how young people learn about and develop the skills seen as important in being an adult. The teaching of facts provides young people with information but does not necessarily give them the understanding and skills to put this information into practice. “This idea that some things cannot be taught but must be learned through experience is a key element of youth development”(Kress, 2006, p. 48). Recent youth development ideas focus on how young people obtain and practice developmental skills through such models as Bandura’s social learning theory (Kress, 2006). This theory emphasises the importance of observing and modelling the behaviours and attitudes of others.

It is the influence of family and community that helps mould the choices and actions of young people and also their behaviour and boundaries. These experiences and influences from people around youth can also however, be contradictory, as young people are involved in various types of communities with varying amounts of influence. Young people seek to sift through the various messages they receive by experimenting with a range of behaviours and roles, which is an important part of creating one’s identity (Heaven, 2001).

At the centre of these ideas and the evaluation that young people make about the various messages they hear is the idea that youth development must “consider the whole young person as a central actor in his or her own development” (Kress, 2006, p. 50). Putting youth at the centre of youth development allows youth to be involved in working towards their own answers to their needs and problems. If youth are left out of societal activities, including a say in youth development issues then the result will be that there could be more disenchanted youth (Delgado, 2002).

If we are to consider youth as central to their own development then there must be consideration made about certain aspects of youth themselves. This includes culture, age, gender, sexual orientation and abilities (Delgado, 2002). Young people are not all the same and differ considerably if many of the above personal aspects (environmental aspects) are taken into account. Each of these environmental aspects dictate how a young person views and interacts with the world around them and how they are perceived and have access to resources and support.

Youth development occurs within and is profoundly influenced by environmental contexts. These contexts include physical, cultural, philosophical, and social dimensions. Each young person has their own unique environmental aspects that contribute to how they view the world and interact with it. “If youth development is to better prepare youth to transition to adulthood, it must do so in a highly diverse society” (Delgado, 2002, p. 75). For youth development to be effective then ‘context’ must be acknowledged and taken into account because these are just as important as the definitions and tasks that are assigned to youth development.

Understanding youth development is not therefore just about knowing the right issues and being able to evaluate young people on their process dealing with each of these issues. It is also about recognising each young person as an individual in their own right. It is also about being able to work out the best way to engage young people in ways where they are both at the centre of and have ownership of their own development. This focus is about the processes involved in a young person’s development and not just the end result.


Arnett, Jeffrey. 2007. Adolescence and emerging adulthood: a cultural approach. 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River N.J. Pearson Prentice Hall.
Carr-Gregg, Michael. 2002. Adolescence: a guide for parents. Sydney: Finch.
Carson, Edgar, National Youth Affairs Research Scheme (Australia). 2000. A new social contract: changing social and legal frameworks for young Australians: a report to the National Youth Affairs Research Scheme. Hobart Tas. Australian Clearinghouse for Youth Studies.
Cobb, Nancy. 2010. Adolescence: continuity, change, and diversity. 7th ed. Sunderland MA: Sinuaer Associates.
Coleman, John. 1999. The nature of adolescence. 3rd ed. London;;New York: Routledge.
Delgado, Melvin. 2002. New frontiers for youth development in the twenty-first century: revitalizing & broadening youth development. New York: Columbia University Press.
Erikson, Erik. 1968. Identity: youth and crisis. New York: Norton.
Grose, Michael. 2005. XYZ: the new rules of generational warfare. Milsons Point N.S.W. Random House Australia.
Heaven, Patrick. 2001. The social psychology of adolescence. 2nd ed. New York N.Y. Palgrave.
Kress, Cathania. 2006. Youth leadership and youth development: Connections and questions. New Directions for Youth Development; Volume 2006, Issue 109
McLaren, Kaye, New Zealand. 2002. Youth development: literature review: building strength: a review of research on how to achieve good outcomes for young people in their families, peer groups, schools, careers and communities. Wellington N.Z. Ministry of Youth Affairs.
YouthTrain, 2006 Leadership Training Programme

By: Sean Marston –

Employing on deals and the web printable deals

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Environmental Sustainability and Distributive Justice


To be a consumer in the United States (US) is simple. In fact, it is the wealth and abundance of goods that attracts many immigrants to the US. Who would not want to be able to live in a spacious home, drive a large vehicle and frequent, mega stores such as Wal-Mart and warehouse stores such as Costco? In fact, there is something addictive and seductive about the way goods and services are sold in the US. It is not that there is a great necessity, but rather marketing is done so well and with such skill that the buyer “has to have” the items that they are faced with. The once in demand item of yesterday becomes an item tossed in a garage for an upcoming garage sale or given to a local charity or dropped off at a local collection drop-off site. It is as if the more, the bigger, the better is desirable such that having material goods renders one more in vogue and fashionable.

To be part of the “it” crowd one has to relentlessly give up the former (perhaps only days or weeks old) and upgrade for the now faster, newer, sleeker, television, cell phone, computer or IPOD. Such is the case in virtually all of suburban communities in the US. Communities where 2-4 people reside in a 3-4 thousand square foot home, with several large SUVs parked in the driveway, and have access to a number of stores, shopping centers etc. Conversely, there is the other side of town, the part of town that most do not want to acknowledge, or ever visit, except for when needing a service or product that can only be sought in the ethnic or migrant community.

In such communities, one can not spot a hummer or drive by a row of over priced homes, or gorgeously manicured lawns. The members of these communities are the service providers for suburbia. They are the ones who mow the lawns, care for the children and clean the homes of their employers. They visit their well-off employers; render a service or provide a product and then go back home to face their own day to day struggles. What is described is not unique to my home town of San Diego, California. In fact the above circumstances can be in India, China, or some other part of the world.

I will not argue that through better sustainability practices we will be able to rid the world of poverty. I also confess that it is difficult to ask the “haves” to share with the “have nots”. With that, I would like to look into sustainability in the context of an environmental sustainability and look into the ways to create distributive justice. What are possibly some of the obstacles? Within the sphere of social equity I will take a look at distributive justice through the eyes of a bi-cultural American. My American acculturation has taught me that consumerism is good and the old adage is “the more, the better”. My Persian heritage and culture has taught me that in fact “less is more” and material goods should not define my identity. As the author of this paper, both of those perspectives will seep through my writing and exploration of environmental sustainability, within the realm of distributive justice.

For the purpose of this analysis I will be using the following operational terms:

Consumerism: the theory that an increasing consumption of goods is economically desirable; also: a preoccupation with and an inclination toward the buying of consumer goods. (Merriam Webster Dictionary)

Sustainable Development

Caldwell [1] writes: The sustainability of human society in the future depends upon the skill and willingness of humans to order their behavior and institutions toward maintaining ecological integrity in human relationships with earth. Lemons [2]

Additionally, there are a number of operational definitions used in the field to characterize sustainability. On its own, sustainability does not mean much, when paired with development it has a modified meaning given that development means action of some sort. Lemons [2] What’s more, sustainability implies the safeguarding of a steady-state condition, and perhaps of preservation. Yet, others have defined sustainability from an economic perspective as the “maintenance of capital.” Goodland [3]

Environmental Sustainability

According to Leuenberger [4], environmental sustainability offers an opportunity to move beyond market-based decision making mechanisms toward plans that allow long-term and concurrent benefits for multiple stakeholders. Leuenberger [4] Moreover, Leuenberger and Wakin’s “Sustainable Development in Public Administration Planning: An Exploration of Social Justice, Equity and Citizen Inclusion” explores the prospect of sustainable development as a tool for increased social justice, equity and citizen inclusion in public administration decision making. Leuenberger [4] The paper suggests that equity and social justice built on meaningful citizen participation needs to be a part of sustainable development. To be able to focus on long term change, incremental steps may not be the solution, but rather transformational changes may be required. Leuenburger [4]

Conceivably a definition of steady-state society can be integrated into a sustainability. Ophuls [5] defines steady-state as: preservation of a healthy biosphere, the careful husbanding of resources, self-imposed limitations on consumption, long-term goal to guide short-term choices and a general attitude of trusteeship toward future generations. Ophuls [5] Similarities amid the sustainability of economic systems and environmental systems are evident in understanding the significance of the concept of carrying capacity Catton [6], and Rees [7] This refers to the greatest load of human use that can be sustained by an environmental without diminishing its future suitability for supporting an equal load. In this case, human load is a function not only of population numbers but also of per capita use. The limitations of an environmental carrying capacity is particularly problematic in the United States since our increasing population, changing population profile, and per capita consumption rates are making greater demands on our ecological resources and natural capital at the national and global levels.

Elliot [8], Wackernagel [9], and Rees [7] described the connections between sustainability and natural capital in this way: Sustainability implies that nature’s capital should be used no more quickly then it can be replenished. Nonetheless, trade and technology have enabled mankind progressively to exploit nature far beyond sustainable levels at a rapid rate so that present consumption exceeds natural income (the “interest” on our capital). This condition leaves the next generation with depleted capital and less productive potential even as the population and material expectations increase. Wright [10]

Distributive Justice

Defined as: an essentially just society… does not need to shape individuals in order to afford them justice… In saying that an essentially just society is neutral with respect to the aims of its members, we deny that justice is linked to any substantive conception of what is good, either for the individual or for society. Kymlicka [11], Raz [12]

Within this realm, the starting point will be distributive justice. The concept of social conflicts occurring based on environmental entitlements, how do we split the pie? Martinez-Alier [13] And is there enough to go around for everyone? Whether intentional or not, the growth of a worldwide movement for environmental justice, which may become a strong factor, has focused on how future generations perceive social equity and distributive justice. Martinez-Alier [13] Before further exploration I would like to preface that not all environmentalist resist growth. Likewise, many of them benefit from the same opulent lifestyle as described in the introduction for this paper.

Behavioral Obstacles

According to Ophuls [5], we have done not much during the last 20 years, but to symbolically care by celebrating earth day…we have done all of the easiest and least painful things. “Now we must do the hard things; reshape basic attitudes and expectations, alter established lifestyles, and restructure the economy accordingly.” Ophuls [5]

The problem of marrying environmental sustainability with distributive justice is similar to healthcare coverage in the US. In the US, approximately 50 million people are without healthcare coverage. Many of the people in this group are children, single mothers, students, and or those who work part time, even some who have full time jobs or work two jobs but still do not have healthcare through an employer. The reasons for such vary and will not be explored in this manuscript. The point is to use it as an analogy. Unlike the United States, the French and the Canadian have universal healthcare coverage. Despite of marital status, age and employment status, both countries have chosen to provide healthcare for their general population. As a result of having a regular medical home and access to basic and preventive care, the populations of both nations outlive the people of the US. There has been a moral and ethical not to mention an economic decision made to provide care in spite of access to wealth. In fact, in a roundabout way the “haves” assist in the payment of monies to provide healthcare for the “have nots”. I would like to tie this back into social equity. So consider the model in which healthcare is considered a resource for wealth generation. The consumption of healthcare limited to the “haves” for sort term benefit at the expense of others, the “have nots” thwarts sustainability. The “have nots” are also a resource, i.e. human capital, which gets consumed and in the absence of healthcare coverage renders unintended consequences. Social equity can not take place if those with access to wealth and capital are not willing to share the profits with those who are less privileged. But this is almost contradictory to the ideals of Americans, where happiness is defined predominantly by the amount of material goods, most are not willing to share with others, in fact why they should? It is practically counter to the American way of life.

Environmentalists who focus on social equity, by my definition are not those who are willing to give up all material goods and live the life of a dervish. Rather, they assert that, perhaps, we can preserve a certain status and quality of life while not losing site of the less fortunate. This belief system is based on the ideals of sustainable development. Not only looking to the needs of today, but also looking to the needs of tomorrow. According to Caldwell [1] for “development to be sustainable must serve the quality of life, rather then social and ecological values being pre-empted primarily to serve the imperatives of economistic development plans.” Lemons [2] It requires a type of forward thinking that is more or less at odds with the “satisfy the id” ideals of Americans. The majority wanting things now and having the mind set of, “oh well we will just face the evils of tomorrow when and if they should arise!”

Perhaps, it is not the fault of Americans for thinking in this manner. After all, America is a very young nation with little or no ancient cultural ideals or heritage. Unlike the countries from the ancient world, “America” lacks the wisdom to build for the future and not just for today. If building green is in vogue then it shall be done, but not because it is the right thing to do; not because it is the smart way to build. With all of its wealth, the US should set an example for other nations of the world. The US should be the role model for sustainable development that all others can pursue.

Unlike other nations, the US population is overall well fed, dressed and housed. To use Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, Americans far surpass others when it comes to having basic needs met. That’s why we have the luxury of worrying about the natural world and our global environment. To others, the immediacy of putting dinner on the table does not allow for the big picture thinking of tomorrow. Day-to-day struggles interfere with the likelihood of seeing the future and working on creating that future now. The “future” for most inhabitants of this planet is the future of tomorrow or perhaps next week, where the questions asked are not will there be enough fuel for my children and grandchildren, instead the questions asked are: will I remain employed? Will I be able to purchase medicine for my sick child? Will I be able to care for my aging parents? Americans, on the whole have a gift, their gift is that they have peace of mind. They are able to use running water as often or as much as they wish, they are not concerned with having access to a phone, or electricity… They do not need to worry about the struggle of “do I send my child to work or to school today.” It is this gift that makes us, Americans the envy of others. It is this gift (otherwise referred to as the American Dream) that the US is such a magnet for foreigners, they too want to be able to benefit from some of the bliss that we have in not having to constantly fight for our basic needs.

In 1964 Rachel Carson stated:

The modern world worships the gods of speed and quantity, and of the quick and easy profit, and out of this idolatry monstrous evils have arisen. Yet the evils go long and unrecognized. Even those who create them manage by some devious rationalizing to blind themselves to the harm they done society. As for the general public, the vast majority rest secure in a childlike faith that someone is looking after things – a faith unbroken until some public-spirited person, with patient scholarship and steadfast courage presents facts that can no longer be ignored. Leuenberger [14], Lear [15]

With that, then we should take upon ourselves to be the stewards of this planet. We have the “know how” and the funds to do so. The issues of stewardship and sustainability of natural resources cannot be neglected if we want to preserve and enhance the well-being and quality of life of future generations. de-Shalit [16], Moody [17], and Page [18] At times economic and environmental issues appear to be distinct and bipolar concerns, yet sustainability can provide a bridge connecting both systems. Wright [10]

Collective Consciousness

How can we inject the concept of sustainability into the collective consciousness? Psychologists and philosophers both agree that education and exhortation are objectives to achieve such a goal, a society where humans have a sustainable relationship with the earth. At the current time, such goals and objectives do not seem to be mainstream and are shared by a few who seem to battle the resistance to a change in attitude. Such changes are required for humans “not so much in changes in basic human nature but rather changing the social circumstances in which human behavior find expression” Lemons [2]. Let us be the superpower that everyone loves and adores, let us spend less or none on wars and instead on providing food and medicine to the needy. One would argue that this is already done; we send millions upon millions of dollars to less developed nations. Some Americans claim we have already done our share. Others would argue, why should we spend US dollars elsewhere when we still have problems to address in our own backyard? I agree and I am not proposing that we send more aid to less developed nations. Instead, the proposal is twofold: 1) be wise with how we expend our goods and services 2) be savvy with how we want to build our future. Instead of spending as much as we can as fast as we can, let us be plan for the cold winters.


We have the ability and luxury to focus on sustainable development. Not because it is in fashion, but rather because it will ensure a better life for future generations. But we can not do this without a shift in our thinking. We must be willing to face the other side of town and examine how we collectively feel about social equity. Are we willing to make any sacrifices? Are we willing to stop avoiding tough decisions? Can we remove our pride and look to see what others may have to offer and ask to collaborate with them. Maybe it is time to take a more careful look at how peasant and indigenous groups have often co-evolved with nature. Martinez-Alier [13]

Maryam is an Assistant Professor and Lead Faculty for the BPA and MPA programs at National University, La Jolla California. Please read more about Maryam by visiting:


[1] Caldwell, L.K., Between Two Worlds, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1992.

[2] Lemons, J., Westra, L. & Goodland, R., Ecological Sustainability and Integrity Concepts and Approaches. Netherlands Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998.

[3] Goodland, R., International Association of Impact Assessment (IAIA) Newsletter 5 (2) (pages unnumbered) 1993.

[4] Leuenberger, D., Sustainable Development in Public Administration: A Match with Practice? Public Works Management and Policy, Vol.10, pp. 195-201, 2006.

[5] Ophuls, W. & Boyan, S., Ecology and the Politics of Scarcity Revisited: The Unraveling of the American Dream, New York, W. H. Freeman and Company, 1992.

[6] Catton, W. & R. Dunlap., “Environmental Sociology: A New Paradigm.” American Sociology, Vol 13, pp. 41-49, 1978.

[7] Rees, W., “Revisiting Carrying Capacity: Area-Based Indicators of Sustainability.” Population and Environment: A Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 17, pp. 195-215, 1996.

[8] Elliot, L., The Global Politics of the Environment, 2nd edition, New York University Press, 2004.

[9] Wackernagel, M. & W. Rees., Our Ecological Footprint: Reducing Human Impact on the Earth, Philadelphia, PA, New Society, 1996.

[10] Wright, S. & Lund, D., Gray and Green?: Stewardship and Sustainability in an Aging Society. Journal of Aging Studies, Vol. 14, Issue 3, pp. 229-250, 2000.

[11] Kymlicka, W., Liberal Individualism and Liberal Neutrality, Ethics, 99, pp. 883-905, 1989.

[12] Raz, J., Liberalism, autonomy and the Politics of Neutral Concern. Midwest Studies in Philosophy, Vol 7, pp. 89-120, 1980.

[13] Martinez-Alier, J., The Environmentalism of the Poor: A Study of Ecological Conflicts and Valuation, Great Britain by Bookcraft Bath Ltd., 2002.

[14] Leuenberger, D.Z., Introduction-Signs of the Tines: Environmental Sustainability, Citizens, Leadership, and Social Justice. Public Administration Theory Network. Vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 370-374, 2007.

[15] Lear, L., Lost Woods: The Discovered Writing of Rachel Carson. (Boston, Beacon Press) 1998.

[16] de-Shalit, A., Why Prosperity Matters: Environmental Policies and Future Generations, New York: Routledge, 1995.

[17] Moody, H.R., “Obligations to Future Generations.” Public Policy and Aging Report 7 (Fall), 8-9, 1996.

[18] Page, T., “On the Problem of Achieving Efficiency and Equity, Intergenerationally.” Land Economics Vol 73, pp. 580-596, 1997.

Current Economic and Marketing Trends That Will Shape the Next Generation

The primary purpose of our publication is to provide useful and effective information while at the same time providing an understanding of current trends in the marketplace, and then subsequently joining together these concepts into a meaningful conclusion to provide companies with an effective result. An effective outcome, from my perspective, is to purely think about the trends shaping our economy, and having the insight to project these trends into your sales and marketing strategy.

We continually look for new and innovative ways for companies to look beyond the daily scope of their business. First and foremost, consider the purpose. The operative word is “trend”, so let’s begin by providing a definition:

Noun: a general direction in which something is developing or changing.

Verb: change or developing in a general direction.

The most effective way to construct your plan is to immerse yourself into a profound appreciation of the economic landscape in America, and the trends shaping this landscape. In past publications, despite my overwhelming desire, I have steered clear of the political composition, unfortunately, as business executives, we need to consider the path we are headed and how we can intellectually capitalize on this potentially negative trend and transform it into a positive development.

Consider the media environment and broad message America has been digesting each and every day. Russell Brand, the world’s greatest intellect is a prime example. In a recent interview; he proclaimed that a ‘socialist revolution and massive redistribution of wealth is necessary in America, he believes in heavy taxation of corporations and an increase in punitive responsibilities for energy companies exploiting the environment. ‘ This is the rhetoric our young people are hearing and the message being embraced by the Obama administration and the liberal media. How ridiculous. Who is Russell Brand, and since when does a British comedian become an expert on the capitalistic revolution?

We need to begin by exploring the failure of our current president and political system. No world leader in history has made so many errors and provided so few options. The last five and a half years will shape our economy and business trends for decades well into the future. One failure after another is well documented: the economy, Benghazi, Solyndra, the stimulus package, health care reform, foreign policy, the national energy policy, partisan politics, social reform, the campaign to divide America through class warfare. Not to mention the fact that his administration has been and will be documented as the worst selection of cabinet members in history.


  • The federal debt as a percentage to GDP (Gross Domestic Product) has exceeded 100% in every year since 2007. See the graph below.
  • The number of people receiving benefits under the federal government has grown from 94 million people in 2000 to more than 128 million in 2011. This means that over 41% of the U. S. population receives at least one benefit.
  • A large portion of the American public have two kinds of income: (1) money they earn and (2) money transferred to them through a taxpayer service vehicle.

The Obama Policies are here to stay, for a long time to come, a very long time. The employment and industry growth trends are hard to pinpoint, however, if we take a detailed look at the industries shaping the American landscape, here is what our team of experts have ascertained.

First of all, we must look at the current economic and social trends shaping our lives. These trends will have a profound impact on our daily routine and will influence the prospect of the future:

  1. The movement towards bigger government, higher taxes, and more entitlements. Obama and his administrative policies have opened the eyes to countless demographics that consider capitalism to be out of favor and socialism is acceptable. We must acknowledge that a vast percentage of people in the country are going to expect the government to create a long term vehicle to transfer wealth. Productive end entrepreneurial people are going to have to work harder with the expectations of higher taxes and fewer benefits. Because of this social and economic shift, expect corporations to redefine their purpose, to build legitimacy within their core customer base within the eyes of the demanding consumer. Companies must think way outside the box; they must find and establish new and creative ways to increase their organic growth and profit platform. The country will be firmly and problematically divided on the subject of increased taxes and bigger government and this will continue to create social class division in the U. S.
  2. Domestic oil production. Contrary to liberal viewpoints, in order to gain true fiscal financial freedom, we must first liberate our country from the dependence on foreign crude oil. Saudi Arabia is running out of natural resources on an exponential basis. The U. S. has the largest crude oil reserves in the world. Special interest groups have limited the production of these resources due to environmental concerns. Technology and neo-production methods have made the recovery of these resources implausible from a environmental standpoint. The government needs to relax the regulations and create more jobs in American and eliminate the funding of foreign natural resources. It is no secret that domestic energy production underpins virtually element of the domestic economy. Sixty years ago, it was not uncommon for domestic oil wells to produce 10,000 barrels of oil a day, today, many of these wells in the same fields (primarily West Texas, Alaska, and The Gulf) are producing 1,000 barrels per day and more. A single well producing this volume of oil creates $30 million in annual revenue, 1000’s of jobs along with untold federal and local tax revenue. Energy production is the foundation of the U. S. economy and contributes significantly to GDP productivity. Me MUST maintain a reasonable oil and gas exploration in the U. S. and rid ourselves of the dependence on foreign crude oil.
  3. Reasonably priced alternative energy sources. A movement to cheaper and more practical solar power, wind, alternative energy sources. Not a government funded programs designed to fund special interest and political action committees, but entrepreneurial endeavors that encourage the development of alternative technologies with real life solutions. Along these same lines is the reduction of CO2 emissions to a historic low. The government has wasted way too much taxpayer dollars chasing alternative energy ghosts because that is exactly what we have done in the past, look at Solyndra. You will see a very strong movement towards innovation driven by scientists, business visionaries, and investors. I personally know of a company who has invented the technology to convert animal waste into useable hydrocarbons. This is an incredible process because it alleviates three serious concerns: animal waste disposal, a useable highly refined product, along with job creation, all three of which make a more productive environment and a more productive economy.
  4. Traditional domestic industrial production. A movement to traditional and historic gross-producing industries. America was founded on the principle of growth and innovation. The primary industries that augment that principle is construction, domestic tangible innovation, domestic intangible innovation, information, and domestic production. The construction industry is expected to rise by 33% through 2020 due to an underdeveloped infrastructure. Domestic manufacturing, higher education, advancements in health care and medicine, the movement to alternative fuel sources, professional and scientific services, mathematics and engineering, oil and gas production.
  5. A local job creation economy. The boom to the open borders in America is coming to an end. Not because the melting pot has dried up, but because we need to create jobs within the existing outline within demographic profiles of American citizens. We need to “care for” and “provide for” the people within the borders, without inviting more competition for the infinitesimal employment prospects in America. Simply stated, we are going to see lackluster job growth because of higher taxes and unemployment numbers will not improve dramatically until we begin to cut taxes. At the end of the day, we will see a movement to supplement the job creation and job growth by people who have well established credentials as U. S. citizens.
  6. The changing cultural drive. The millenials have become the weak link in our economy. These are the trophy kids who have no work ethic and no competitive drive, they are not ready to commit, and they believe that big business is evil with a negative impact on society. From the standpoint of achievement, they want less than they were given. Fortunately, they believe education is more important than ever and will eventually snap out of this disturbing behavior because they have a keen sense of accomplishment and are late bloomers. I think you can even introduce the idea that the reason the millenials have acquired these traits in the first place is because they have been brought up as trophy kids, and I think they will lose this trait over time.
  7. Shift in the job market. Employers will find unsuitable talent pools to fill the expanding job roles. American, as well as the rest of the world has an aging population. In order for prosperity to persevere, the country must provide its youth with adequate educational opportunities. Although educational access is growing nationally, not enough students graduate with the skills desired by global employers and the market needs to persuade this expertise. Furthermore, woman, an increasingly well educated force in the market, with an incredible competitive drive, will become a factor in job fulfillment.
  8. The end of cheap China. As the economic engine evolves in China, it will become a lesser world faction. Why? Because they have tasted a new found wealth along with an emerging manufacturing popularity. The only substance of stability pertaining to the health of China’s economic engine is their cheap labor force, which is rapidly dwindling. The price of human capital (labor) has increased by as much as 20% annually for the last 4-5 years driven by a strong demand for goods and services and inexpensive production. China has literally priced themselves out of the world market by increasing their labor prices, and at the end of the day, NO ONE in the world, especially America, is going to buy Chinese goods and services at market rates. In short time, these jobs will be transferred to domestic counterparts who can produce the same product at the same price with much higher quality. The U. S. economy is still double the size of China (number 2), and triple the size of Japan (number 3). Sorry folks, but China is slowing, and it will continue to move in that direction.
  9. The movement to become a society of contra-form. This county must become the world leader once again. In terms of innovation, invention, scientific achievement, engineering, productivity, and the entrepreneurial productivity. This concept begins first and foremost with education, training and knowledge; we must once again embrace the belief that education drives innovation and invention is what made this country what it is today, and will make it what it desires in the future. No other country has the prosperity equal to the U. S. , not even close, you are going to see an enormous change in innovation like none other.


Like any shift, we must examine these trends shaping our environment and transform them into real life and productive results. Never before has demographic change happened so abruptly and has divided the country so decisively. Companies operating in hope-a-land will be looking at others in their rear view mirror. Companies embracing these changes will adapt quite nicely.

Trends, by definition, are a general direction in which something is developing or changing. In almost all cases, current trends are short-lived, given time, they will be history. Understanding how these shape our lives is the difference between good leaders and great leaders. The political landscape in our country has been created by the citizens of a democracy, they have been elected. You can adapt, flee or die. It will take a long time to reverse these incredibly bad decisions of our president and for that matter, Washington in whole. Think about what you have just read and how you can incorporate this into your business to make it better.

We simply like to open your eyes towards looking into the next 6-10 years. Some of the material we present is a way for some insight and a desired solution by incorporating these trends into our business strategy is the smart move. Most of the information presented in our writings comes from conversations from everyday business people and a vast amount of resources.

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