Environmental Issues For Real – Population Growth

Twenty years ago I wrote an article entitled “What’s in a number?” It was about the challenge of a rapidly growing elephant population in northern Botswana that was confined to a large but finite area. At the time the wildlife managers, scientists and conservationists close to the problem argued incessantly about exactly how many elephants there were. Was it 80,000, or 110,000 or 92,421?

This was a peculiar focus given that the real challenge was not how many elephants there were, as everyone agreed that there were many, but what, if anything, was to be done about the consequences of each year there being more and more hungry herbivores the size of a truck. In effect the problem was the consequences of population growth.

Today in Australia there is a simmering debate about numbers. This time it is about the growing population of humans and how many there should be living on the island continent.

Would 26 million Australians or 36 million be best? Perhaps it should be some number in between. And at what rate should Australia get to whatever the final number should be, given that as at June 2011 there are 22.6 million residents?

Well known Australian entrepreneur Dick Smith argues for a stable 26 million. He proposes that the extra 3 million or so should be achieved by limiting annual immigration to 75,000 per year (from the current 185,000) and letting the number climb steadily. Typically for a modern economy birth rates have fallen so that population is stable without immigration. The main logic behind Smith’s 26 million is that this is the number of humans that the environment can handle.

Financial analyst Bernard Salt believes 33 million by 2050 is essential. Any less and Australia will run out of workers. His conclusion comes from the demographic numbers that see retiring Baby Boomers leaving the workforce and, as they struggle to pay for their retirement, not enough new workers leaving school to replace them. Annual immigration of 180,000 over the next 15 years would be necessary to prevent serious labor shortages and a stalling of the economy.

These two contrasting views capture the essence of the debate that has also begun to spread to the political sphere. Should the optimal population size be determined by available resources (Smith’s view) or by the need to maintain the economic system (Salt’s argument)?

Before we try to unpick this conundrum, some context is needed.

The global human population of 6.7 billion will grow to at least 9 billion over the coming decades. It may be more, 12 billion perhaps, but it will certainly grow before it contracts back to perhaps 5 billion post-2100.

An increase in population over the next decades is as inevitable as death and taxes, just as growth in numbers of a protected elephant population in northern Botswana was a biological certainty. There are already too many youngsters in big families who will themselves reproduce. We have to see out the demographic transition because it is a certainty.

Australia is big enough and rich enough to handle its share of a 50% increase in human numbers and so reach the 30 or so million Salt says is essential.

It is also capable of feeding far more. There is land, technology, a stable economy and the people smarts to overcome challenges of irrigation, nutrients and old soils to grow far more food that the resident population would require. In the future, as now, agriculture will be an important export industry for however many Australians live on the continent.

As a retail entrepreneur, Smith knows about the importance of growth. He would also be familiar with the political economy mantra of ‘more workers, more consumer demand, more tax‘.

Consequently his suggested shift from the economic model of growth at a time when the local population ages, is a huge call. Although he would probably argue that even under a stable population, people will expect standards of living to rise and that this is enough to maintain the paradigm of economic growth.

Salt’s 33 million will put enormous pressure on housing, transport and utilities. The cities will sprawl and the coastlines where people want to live will become more crowded. However, all the building and development, plus the goods and services to keep the people happy will, of course, fuel the economy. An extra 10 million people will buy a lot of refrigerators, toasters and flat-screen TVs.

Economic growth would happen if the number were 43 million or even 63 million. Indeed there are some politicians who see such large numbers as a laudable goal. But, as with the elephants, it is not the number that matters, it is the decisions on what must be done when they go up.

Given time and smart decisions on land management a doubling of population size is possible. It would put pressure on the environment and make it much harder to achieve current conservation objectives and pressure on the decision system. Planning departments would be snowed under.

Growth at a fast rate would stretch the system to breaking point. There would not be time to move to sustainable land management, planning decisions would be rushed and infrastructure would not be able to keep up. People would end up frustrated and stressed.

Rather than argue about the number it is smart to think about managing the rate of growth.

The importance of insurance

The insurer is the insurance company, while the police made use of this service. In this process, the insured must pay a certain amount of quotas, at prescribed intervals for the company, and in turn, the insurer undertakes to assume the financial losses and expenses policy. Insurance is very useful in case of loss of property, in business, the loss of life, considerable medical expenses, damage to the car in case of accident, etc.

If you are considering its importance in risk management, which protects the company stops in case of loss of property. Losses may be incurred by all means of destruction, such as fires, floods, storms and other natural disasters. The financial losses that may occur due to a grand larceny may be covered. More property losses, insurance companies are significant, because it can also cover a portion of the amount payable in the event of loss of a trial. Without doubt, this is the best way to protect organizations of large losses.

Life insurancehttp://www.lifeinsurancerates.com/images/product_selector_button.jpg
In the work of these policies, who continue to pay the premium, periodically and in case of death, the insurer must pay a certain amount for the candidates, who are mainly members of his family, and those who depend on their financial support. The amount receivable by the family in case of death depends on the chosen policy. The employer’s policy may include an amount that is double the annual salary; however, other policies may allow up to ten times the annual salary.

Health insurance
It plays an important role in the coverage of medical expenses prescribed. In this, you have to pay the premium, for which expenditures for your medical expenses are supported by the undertaking concerned. Don’t forget the costs will be covered only if the insured falls ill due to causes provided for by the police.

Auto insurance
This is no more coverage for damage due to traffic accidents. This is the best option to stop worrying about the costs that will be paid in the case of a car accident. The United States alone, more than 1,200 traffic accidents take place. There are several types of policies, which have coverage for specific information on accidents. Some types can be covered damage caused by vandalism, fire, theft and natural disasters. Deciding policy, to understand all aspects covered

The Physical and Environmental Benefits From Wearing and Using Bamboo Products

Bamboo is a plant of the grass family. It is evergreen, very hardy, has an excellent growth rate compared to cotton and is economically viable. Manufactured items from bamboo are known to last a long time. This is because of the natural properties the fibers contain. Bamboo is considered the most environmentally friendly plant on the planet. This plant replenishes the atmosphere through its leaves by manufacturing oxygen more than 35% of its counterparts of trees. One hectare of bamboo eliminates 60 tons of carbon-dioxide per year from the atmosphere in comparison to its same amount of forestry in trees which eliminates 15 tons per year. The rate of growth of the bamboo plant is up to 35 meters and is able to grow as many as 1 meter per day; comparing this to regular forestry, which one tree, takes years to develop. Once the plants mature, and new shoots are produced it takes 8-10 weeks to reach its full height and about 3 years to mature; bamboo can be harvested on a continuous basis and there is no damage or lack to the environment.

Irrigation is none as the plant is able to thrive in any climatic condition. Studies have shown that bamboo is able to grow under the harshest of conditions and survive. This is one reason it is used for construction in the housing sector in Indonesia. The plant is able to preserve the soil at an alarming rate, as during harvesting the root system remains intact. This helps to keep the soil in place and will regenerate new plants, as well. The roots also bind the soil together during weather conditions of storms or hurricanes.

Manufacturing clothing from bamboo is done by using the Moso bamboo found in China. This is one of the 1600 species of bamboo that is found worldwide. The Moso bamboo grows on 2% of Chinas forest population and is where most of the timber and textile comes from. The product is viable for garment manufacturing because of its breathability, softness to the skin, easy care, insulating properties, wicking ability, bio-degradable characteristics, and it is also less expensive than cotton or the manmade fabrics. This product is also able to protect you from 99% of the sun’s harmful rays. How cool is that? The many advantages of using bamboo products can only enhance our lives, and we need to consider the planet and what we can do to save it. This is an exceptional way of doing so, and it is cheap also.

Interconnected Environmental Problems

A number of environmental problems are continuing as a major part of our concern. Habitat destruction and fragmentation, biodiversity loss, stratospheric ozone depletion, global climate change, herbicides, pesticides, pollution of surface- and ground-water, acid deposition, oil spills, and thermal pollution are direct environmental problems. Human population growth, unsustainable consumerism, urbanization, international conflicts, and inequities in the distribution of wealth are indirect environmental problems. All such problems are presently being viewed in a totality, to ameliorate the said problems, and to ensure the future of life on earth. Expansion of chemical industries, during and after World War II, has aggravated such problems. “Silent Spring” written by Rachel Carson awakened about pollution threats to living species. Environmentalism has become accepted in the public Agenda since the first National Earth Day in 1970. The 1970s were the decade of environment.Between the 1980s and 1990s, environmental issues were pushed into the political background, and now coming to the forefront as human abuse of the earth is continuing. Emphasis on preventive measures rather than curative measures on environmental problems is believed to contribute a lot.

Diversity in living forms occurs due to changes in their genetic make up, inheritance of changes, and operation of natural selection. Interaction between environment, genetic variation, and natural selection leads to evolution. Origin of new species is the result of evolution. Existing biodiversity is the result of evolution, and extinction. Evolution and extinction are make, and breake system in nature. Diversity of species and the complex interrelationships that sustain them are encompassed by the term biodiversity. The term “Biological Diversity” was coined by Thomas Lovejoy in the year 1980. E. O. Wilson applied the term “Biodiversity” in 1986. The 1992 United Nations Earth Summit held at Rio de Janeiro defined biodiversity as “the variability among living organisms from all sources, including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part: this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems”.

Brown, an administrator of UNDP has recently argued that biodiversity is far from being optional or a luxury; rather a key development issue that frequently provides the welfare system for poor people and communities. Most of the world’s biodiversity exist in the economically poorest countries, which offer opportunities to the poor to enhance their income by exploiting the biodiversity resource. According to Brown, our future programmme should focus on “biodiversity for development”, not biodiversity or development.

Increasing population degrades natural habitat in a number of ways. An assessment of wildlife habitat loss in tropical Asia reported that India had already lost about 80% of its natural habitat. Biological diversity has become a topic of international convention, and is no longer the private domain of biologists. The complexity on this planet lies in the dynamics of the “biodiversity/biosphere” system. The concept of Sustainable development has been emerged for conserving the natural and biological resources. Understanding biodiversity necessitates the knowledge of taxonomy, evolution, genetics, behavioral biology, economics, ecology, environmental science, political science, and sociology. In fact, economy and ecology intersect in a 3 fold system of biodiversity, biosphere, and human society.

Evolution of the diversity of life is associated with interaction involving biosphere, human society, and climate. In both Rio and Johannesburg, economic and social development of humanity was emphasized, as they depend on long-term environmental health. Central role of biodiversity in sustainable development and in eradication of poverty was recognized at Johannesburg. World Commission on Environment and Development report states that “If needs are to be met on a sustainable basis, the Earth’s natural resource base must be conserved and enhanced”. Developing countries are plagued with social inequalities with features, including poverty, inadequate social amenities, high unemployment rates, and lack of proper infrastructure. These countries base their development policy on the paradigm set by the market economy. The pursuit of developmental objectives by such countries comes into conflict with environmental protection.Poverty and present trends of development leads to environmental degradation. The World Bank has asserted that the poor are both victims and perpetuators of environmental abuse. The World Bank has claimed that up to 1991, more than 1500 environmental components were added to power, transportation, industry and agriculture projects,with a few being implemented to improve soil conservation, to manage forests and rangelands, to prevent desertification, to protect biological diversity, and conserve water resources and fisheries. However, an interdisciplinary approach can help in the conservation of biodiversity along with the environmental resources, and essentially with involvement of the people.

Why You Should Never Purchase Unified Communications

What’s the most important part of your business? Is it marketing, your employee choices, your location? If you think about it, there’s one thing that ranks above all of those aspects of your company: communications. If you don’t have a very well structured communications system, then you won’t be able to even reach your customers, let alone sell them something. Your communications system defines your company to potential and existing customers. They interact with you through it, they purchase products using it, and they recommend your services to other friends with it. Unified Communications (UC) combines all your real-time and non-real-time communication services so you can present a unified front to your customers. UC allows you to maintain your company persona and combine a variety of services into one, easily managed process. Many businesses use UC for smooth and efficient management. If you’re looking into UC, you’ve probably already discovered the popular debate that rages on today: should businesses buy or lease this technology?

Equipment Leasing and Unified Communications

Equipment leasing has become a more and more popular choice as time goes on and the market becomes more fast-paced. About 1/3 of equipment today is leased, not bought. UC is no exception. As technology, not machinery, UC is often leased because of the flexibility leasing provides. Purchasing is just too committed for something that will probably be an entirely different piece of equipment 2 or 3 years down the road. In fact, it can be a fatal mistake to purchase UC technology instead of leasing it – and here’s why.

You’re Not Getting a Return, You’re Losing Money

Equipment is usually bought solely because it’s thought of as an investment. The idea is, you’re losing money in the long run if you lease instead of buy. This can be true with some things, but it’s not true with technology, and especially not with UC. The problem is, UC loses value quickly over time. This isn’t an uncommon phenomenon. With most technology, you’ll find this is true. No one wants outdated tech. Not only will you be unable to sell your UC technology as time goes on, you’ll also be losing money as your competitors upgrade and leap ahead of you. And speaking of competitors . . .

Have You Lost Your Edge Yet?

If you’re leasing your UC, you have an extreme advantage as far as flexibility goes. You’re only held to your tech for as long as your lease extends. When you’re purchasing the technology, you’re obligated to keep the old system as long as possible so you don’t lose money on your supposed ‘investment’. What does this mean? It means that those people who are leasing their UC, as opposed to buying it, can upgrade quicker. They’re more abreast of the times. Let’s face it, breakthroughs in technology are coming hard and fast. It’s no longer affordable or cost-effective to try to purchase everything. You’ll end up using antiquated methods far quicker than you think, which leads to losing money – not saving it.

The ‘Mine’ Mentality

It’s no longer efficient to purchase instead of buying UC. So why do people keep doing it? One of the reasons is the thought process that goes behind a purchase. We often have something of a ‘mine mentality’ – owning something appeals more to our nature than simply ‘borrowing’ it. We’re more comfortable if we know we own a product or service than if we only have it for a short period of time. However, when it comes to things that will need to be upgraded or replaced anyway, that mentality is useless. Who cares if you own it, if you’re just losing money from the ownership in the first place? Don’t make the fatal mistake of purchasing instead of leasing your UC technology – you’re going to regret it later.

Developing a Healthy Relationship With Fear

I once heard a woman being interviewed on the radio say “I know I’m on track when I can smell my own fear and walk right through it.” Fear can be absolutely debilitating or with a little fine tuning, it can be transformed into excitement and exhilaration, much like a roller coaster ride. In these times of such challenging economic and environmental changes, it seems that approaching problem solving with a sense of adventure will be more fruitful for us than remaining in panic or fear. There are plenty of individuals and organizations that are excited about our old structures breaking down just for the opportunity to get to participate in creating the new structures with more sustainable values.

We have a profound yet simple choice before us: to let fear claim us or to develop a relationship with fear that empowers us to take action. The interesting thing about fear is that energetically, it is dense and rigid rather than fluid and flowing. Creativity can only be explored and expressed in the flow of free thought. And since solutions can only be found within creativity, the survival of the human race actually depends on how we relate to fear.

Creativity is not the only gift of fear. Having our fears triggered brings forth our insecurities for us to examine and release, which is at the heart of healing our soul. Developing a healthy relationship with fear is also part of developing a positive relationship with the Self.

So what does a positive relationship with fear look like?

First of all, we become acutely aware of when we are allowing ourselves to be fed by fear or unconsciously absorb it when watching the media or by buying into the fears of others. Filter the type of information that you expose yourself to. Listen to National Public Radio and local community based stations that offer news without sensationalism and provide equal amounts of good news. Listen to the news with discernment to filter the fear based messages and seek out solution based news.

Second, we learn how to become aware of our unconscious fears that choose our behaviors and reactions by recognizing when our ego is active. The ego’s job is to protect our insecurities, so developing a positive relationship with the ego strengthens self-honesty and self-awareness. Befriending the ego actually allows us to let go of shame and guilt and heals insecurities.

Third, we develop our core strength to actively release fear and intentionally increase the fluidity and flow of our energy system. This is a practice that can be performed daily by intentionally releasing fears with your breath as they arise. Unconscious fears can also be proactively sought out and released.

The gifts of developing a positive relationship with fear are infinite. As you increase the fluidity of your energy system through healing fear, flow and harmony will infuse your relationships, projects, and your overall perspective on life. Clarity, solutions, and inner peace present themselves underneath each fear turned over.

Political Process & Urban Youth Development In Niger Delta

At in-dependency in 1960, the Nigerian population was about 50 million. Currently we are an estimate 158 million, meaning that 120 million Nigerians are below the age of 43 years. If those above 60 years are only about 38 million, it therefore means those between the ages of 18- 43 years are the majority. That is about 110 million. Registered voters are currently 130 million according to Electoral Commission of Nigeria, clearly more than half of those eligible to vote are 18 years and above. The pertinent question is therefore: where are the rest of potential voters as out of the 110 million registered voters, only less than 80 million voted in 2007?

The hard fact cannot be bailed out, as more than 142 million people by the Nigerian law are eligible to vote, excluding the ex-convict and the de-franchised.

Then the following ethical summations are put down figuratively:

o 20 million youth aged 18 and above have no Identity cards automatically eliminating them from the voting process.
o A significant number of them have no birth certificates therefore they do not exist.
o Majority (34.3%) of the youth who have votes are apathetic to the whole process. They feel their voting would not make a different.
o For the youth that vote, majority (32 million) vote for the wrong reasons such as: electing leaders from their ethnic groups even though they do not merit, electing those who have dished out the most money, peer pressure and often pressure from one’s family to vote for particular leader as a block.
o A large percentage of the youth watch at the periphery as they are ignorant of the importance of being in political party specifically in the mainstream politics were crucial decisions about a nation are made.
o Civic education has yet to fully incorporated and emphasized that there are youth who are great leaders and merit a chance.

As for those youth in mainstream politics, they face the following:

o Patronage; where senior party members do not create spaces for the youth to play crucial roles in the political parties.
o Lack of clear political party ideology and value system that guides the operation of the party and the conduct of its members indiscriminately especially on age and gender.
o Ethnicity where membership of most political parties is dictated by ethnicity stemming from the founders of the parties or the individuals that are funding it. This has caused chaos, and a lot of heartache for youth who find themselves barred from progressing or participating in crucial roles. The shift of loyalty, distrust, corruption and vertical solidarity determines who gets what within the political parties.
o Gender discrimination has had a negative impact on young ladies within the parties whose participation is limited and their contribution unrecognized. The culture of violence, mud slinging and character assassination has discouraged many competent young ladies from fully engaging in politics.
o Lack of resources, especially funding political activities and maintaining the required mechanisms.

In terms of the employment process, just like the political process and structure development paradigm, young people have the highest rate of unemployment and in many ways are the most vulnerable to the social depredations that are caused by unemployment and poverty. At the same time they are the promise of the future, and failure to invest in the young generation imposes great constraints on the potential for future development. Whether it is investing in the creation of decent work for young people which boosts the economy and lowers the demand for social services, or whether it be supporting peer to peer models of HIV/AIDS education, or supporting youth in creating food security for their community, research has shown that investing in youth brings about healthier youth and healthier communities

STRATEGY AND MOBILISATION FOR YOUTH DEVELOPMENT

The federal Government and its Amnesty group of trustees, and other stakeholders such as NGOs, CLO and other Private donors are a multi-faceted strategy that focuses on recognizing the on-going work of youth on the key urban issues of: economic development; urban peace and conflict; HIV /AIDs; and environmental degradation. These four areas that has become paramount a leverage to resolving the unending national and regional conflicts both religious and economically motivated, that 73% perpetuated by the Youths. The core of the SC strategy is the recognition that youth have the capacity to be meaningfully engaged in urban development programmes. The SC through various youth development initiatives will be a vehicle to mobilize resources to support those most marginalized youth populations in initiating and sustaining youth led programmes.

Strategy 1

Creation of urban based youth resource centres that directly support youth led development issues, such as the Youth Development and rehabilitation, a program set up by various states and local government in Nigeria, especially glaring in the Nigeria Delta, Western, Northern and Eastern geopolitical zones of the country. The focus of these hubs will be a space for youth to organize youth-led programmes in the area of economic development, prevention of violence, and delivery of education and services on HIV /AIDs. This strategy is further outlined below.

Strategy 2

Training youth as peace builders: The World Youth Report 2009 states that a majority of warfare takes place in developing countries, particularly in Africa, where an estimated 200,000 young soldiers between the ages of 10 and 24 risk their lives in the course of armed conflict willed by adults. Even in countries not plagued by armed conflict, the youth have often been misused in the political arena. While their energy and enthusiasms are powerful tools in promoting social or political issues, they are also vulnerable to being misled and misused, often leading to disruptive results. Youth need to be involved in violence prevention strategies, not just conflict reaction strategies. Youth can take the lead. There is also an implementation strategy through collaboration between Federal government agencies (MYA) and their subs, local and national youth organizations, NGOs and local authorities focused on creating effective and sustainable models for urban youth development and employment in Nigeria.

Plans are now in place to assist in the design of other regions/states of the country since by virtue of its implementation in Niger Delta with the following objectives:

Objective of the SC Youth Centres Project:

- To encourage partnerships with relevant stakeholders in the delivery of youth development;
– To increase knowledge, skills and attitude change of young people;
– To respond to educational, socio-economic, recreational, emotional and psychological needs of young people in an integrated way;
– To encourage youth to have greater ownership of development;
– To offer leadership and mentorship to young people.

Six Key Areas of Intervention:

1. Employment and Entrepreneurship: To build capacity of youth to participate effectively in urban poverty reduction through training and by offering employment opportunities in self-employment, formal and informal sectors.

2. Governance and Advocacy: To enhance youth contribution towards better governance by promoting increased youth participation in local government matters, particularly those concerning youth development.

3. Health: To provide services aimed at preventing and solving reproductive health problems amongst the youth by provision of information, skills training, education on reproductive health, counseling and referral services.

4. Communication and Information: To establish mechanisms to effectively communicate and disseminate information to youth, youth organizations and other partners involved in youth work.

5. Environment and Resource Management: To strengthen youth engagement in the protection and improvement of the environment by promoting their participation in environmental justice and governance initiatives.

Needs for financial support:

- Establish satellite resource centres in informal settlements
– Define and initiate employment creation programmes, micro-credit programmes
– Enable more health services to be offered free
– Build more networks and partnerships both locally and internationally
– Provide the library with books and information
– Provide computers for office work and internet access
– Build employment training programmes including global mentoring and monitoring
– Establish a youth trust/small grants programme for entrepreneurship

This partnership has been constructed in order to learn from each other best practices regarding how to address the diversity of challenges facing youth today in urban communities, systems to enable them to make sustainable decisions, and the inter-generational transfer of values.

THE OBJECTIVE OF YOUTH DEVELOPMENT IN NATION BUILDING

A nation will add a feather to its cap and process of its development will continue if its ambitious, agile, virile and strong youths are guided on the right direction. The youths of a nation are powerful. They are agile and are inclined to work, but it is usually seen that the youths are unable to yield desired results for want of proper guidance.

Consequently, whatever they do neither it gives satisfaction to them nor does it fulfill the needs of the nation. Under these circumstances to speak of the welfare of Youth in Nation Building, and Human Capital Development is meaningless; until priority is giving to its articulate program that will set them in vogue.

The fact is that after independence the successive generations failed to carve the path of progress on right lines, simply because of the innocuous poor articulation of youths in government’s actions to make certain future decisions in terms of continuity. The moral question is, how can a nation be developed if its youths, those who are willing to undertake any kind of work, one would only but imagine how strenuous it will be, if they are not guided properly?

It will ultimately result in a chaotic situation like the one we are faced with, such as the issues of youth restiveness in the Niger Delta and in other parts of Nigeria and Africa. The society is divided and trapped in the cob-web of problems. Self interest has become dominant, corruption is rampant and what alarms us most is that the national character is on decline.

In order to attend to the problem prevalent with youth restiveness and their role in nation building in the region, there is need for overall human capital development. Because development brings together the production and distribution of commodities, and the expansion and use of human capabilities. For youth to lead a long and healthy life there is need for intellectual and socio-economic enlightenment on their rights, thereby creating those articulate acumen to navigate their paths in accessing resources needed for their decent living, and their involvement in Nation Building. This is where investing in human resource development amongst the timid youths of the Niger Delta, as part of the Federal Government’s “Operation Youth for Nation Building” strategy is imperatively of utmost concern and urgency. There is no gain saying nevertheless that the productive capacity of youths is wider than all other forms of wealth taken together, which perhaps is the centerpiece of this caption.

In my earlier paper presented on the lunching of the Edo State’s Directorate of Youth Affairs and Social mobilization; part of the paper quotes as follows:

The problem of youth restiveness is a mirage until recently when a coalition of civil liberty Organization, NGOs, Government and other international agencies expressed largesse concern over Youth Global development as they collectively and genuinely seek to address the ills and disproportionate spur of Youth affairs in government and their apartheid in Nation Building; such as in the Niger Delta and other parts of the country, with regard to Militancy, sectarian and religious violence, Illiteracy, unemployment, disempowerment etc.

Generally speaking, several militants and youth leaders might not hold the ace on how the solution to the economic, socio-political and environmental problems of the Niger Delta region and its timid youth. However if the region’s leaders and representative of various organization are truly sincere in the ongoing peace process, their actions are capable of creating a vacuum in the economic mainstream and survival of our federal hegemony – Nigeria. In order to facilitate steady and speedy youth capital and human development; there is need to address the following:

a. Provision of sufficient mechanism and infrastructure to boost youth capital initiative and sustainable development.
b. Initiate programme for youth interactive sessions and intellectual model in the discussion of issues such as youth restiveness, the society and economic development of youths in nation building, an agenda that reflects on the youth.
c. Discussing and articulating programs to quell corruption, political irresponsibility among political representative, and inefficiency within government systems and weak social safety.
d. Solution to uplifting the meager status of the youths in issues such as hunger, illiteracy, unemployment and economic disempowerment should be resolved, and programs should be set up at various quarters to attend to these problems.

With the above paradigm, different strategic indicators should be put in place to assume its full mandates of youth capital development by ending restiveness, militancy, violence and all forms of crisis in the Niger Delta region, both internally motivated, nationally alleged, or some sort of ‘International Oil Conspiracy’. Although it is also pertinent to remark that at the root cause and effect of youth conflict in the Niger delta and elsewhere in Nigeria is due to the high incidence of state failures over time to address certain economic, political and sociological issues affecting and reflecting albeit Youth Development. National leaders instead of focusing more on the federal process that brings about equitable development across the nation. The National Leaders are over indulging in paraphelia Federal structure which is suppresses the concept of peace building, and reneging Youth development in Nation Building.

The inability of the Niger Delta states to meet its primary social obligation notably youth and other socio-economic development provision and maintenance of internal order as well as its unconcealed order for misrule, epitomize a total failure of national leadership process and structure within and without.

Even though the youths of Niger Delta is wholly or partly marginalized and displaced, the historical pivotal causes of youth restiveness, which comprises of 96% youth force in Niger Delta region is nonetheless caused by the antecedent of greed, political ambition and individualized cause. This of course is an emphasis on the disunity that has rocked the region’s leaders, and basically for the lack of various established organization’s commitment in the region’s politics, as the leaders are not accountable and transparent; or simply, militant groups finds it difficult to focus on a common goal, vision and ideology of the region’s long national and economic deprivation over time, that makes the crisis seem even more complex, tactical and dangerous.

Let us give a helping hand to the young generation, uplift their morale to enable them to revive the national character and to carry on the process of national upliftment. It is also our duty and if we are indifferently disposed to it, we are certainly disregarding our duty towards the society and nation. Under such circumstances, we have no right to initiate peace process, because if we cannot find people in ourselves, therefore finding peace in others is impossible.

Encourage the youth in nation building is something that is character oriented, and if our leaders in government despise these salient issues, then it is glaring that they are profiting from the violence, and the current national quagmire.

YOUTH AND NATION BUILDING NETWORK

From the above analogy and largesse, the reason for CLO, NGOs and government participation in the facilitation towards ending the conflicts in the region between militants and multinational corporations on one hand, Government and Militants/Youths Leaders on the other hand, and coalition of the willing to prevent further crisis in the region, which houses the leaders and representative from Multinational Oil Corporations, Stakeholders in the peace process, the Government, civil liberty organization and the international community on another end, is to put an end to the violence and under-development in the region. The State and Federal government demonstration of amnesty initiative is a welcome development, and should be embraced by all stakeholders in the area in order to sue for dialogue.

The political independence is essential for the upliftment of a nation, but it is not the end. Much is to be achieved on social and economic fronts. Probably, the political independence was regarded as the ultimate goal. Therefore, the contemporary generation of youths was not given any definite guide-line; with the result they had no knowledge of their duties towards the society or the nation. To avoid further deterioration of the situation, it is necessary to guide the youths in right direction, so that they may engage themselves with the task of completing the unfinished process of upliftment of their nation.

The responsibility of preparing the background and creating a congenial environment in this respect lies with the intellectuals and the leaders of society. But if the leaders through pride and personal ego fail to realize these facts, then we will continue to embark on the enslaved marigold problems.

Separately, the government, NGOs and CLOs have been trying to mediate and facilitate peace process in the area through several MDGs projects, sustainable initiative with communities in the region, and to negotiate with youth leaders, warlords; who because of lack of cooperation and misplaced agenda have been fighting themselves over ethnic, religious and political matters and not because of the plight of their people (Asakitikpi, 2007). These are indeed reasons why any form of peace process in the area has failed, why the Amnesty initiative of the federal government and genuine stakeholders in the Niger Delta will not work, if these leaders through a forum of sincere peace builders in line with government’s plans for development do not come together through consensus.

Asakitikpi went further:

“The headline which quote Alhaji Dokubo as stating that ‘we must control our resources’, suggest the he – Dokubo is not fighting for the rights of his people to have control their resources, but for powerful individuals like himself”.

Going by Asakitikpi’s analogy, it is to say that while there are no genuine youth leaders, other than illustrious personalities like Isaac Adaka Boro, Professor Ake and their likes; the manner in which some of the claimed freedom fighters, Militants (MEND) and co, Youth Leaders and their various administrative structures are composed is not to say beyond measure, unacceptable. Literarily we are all aware of the bunkering episode that brought some of these leaders to financial fame, and the criminal activities to convert federal and state laws into personal enterprise. One must quickly re-visit the differentiation between legitimate leadership structure and a mob operated scheme, which at certain time terrorized the inhabitants of their communities those who stood in their way of justices and legality. These Militants leaders that preaches irrelevancy of the amnesty package today were also instrumental to the building of the foundation along with militarized economic misnomer of the antecedent of military regime, the inability of a decent society across the region. Will it not be refuted with regard to the rationality of these leaders’ genuine course for development in the area, when they were actors in the vandalization of the moral and economic good of their host communities; while circumventing their people and playing the gimmicks with Multinational Corporations and shady government officials? In my Ernest opinion, those leaders that will reject the amnesty initiative of the Federal government are the real terror of the region, and they should face the full blow of the law.

This is indicative of Alhaji Asari Dokubo’s recent nationwide activities as per the crisis in the region, and his docile and incurrent acumen to fully comprehend the dynamics and sincerity as an in-depth mythology of the peace building and Youth development initiative of the region. The reason for this exercise is, for both the Federal Government, MNCs, NGOs, CLOs and Militants Groups to admittedly compensate the people of the region of the havoc melted on them, for the long years of economic degradation, political marginalization, economic deprivation, and barricading terror weighed on them by both Military operations of the Federal Government in their drive to eliminate Militants, and Guerilla warfare on them by Militants.

Through Nation Building, empowerment of Youths in its entire ramification is likely to lead to human capital development which in turn is expresses to reduce the tendency towards anti-social behaviours that affects societal norms, ethics and values. Youth development is not about increase capacity in terms of knowledge and skill acquisition as pronounced in so many organizations’ mission statements nowadays, rather it equally requires that individuals have access to capital so that their means of livelihood could be sustained and realized. A decent society where there is a wide gap between the rich and poor creates the condition for desperation and the undermining of societal values as individuals will do anything possible to avert poverty by any means. This should be discouraged by creating a forum for filling these society gaps, such as government’s concentration on youth development in nation building, as they are the leaders of tomorrow, and the workforce of present and very near future.

POSITIVE YOUTH DEVELOPMENT

This project conception was initiated, in part, to describe why a “shift in approach” has been advocated for how we address youth issues in this country. We are going to be focusing on the ways in which differing points of view have converged to form the field of positive youth development in recent Nigerian centric polity. With the twenty first century’s “discovery” of childhood and adolescence as special periods in which children should be given support to learn and develop, society assumed an increased sense of responsibility for the care of its young people.

Increases in juvenile crime and concerns about troubled youth led in the 2007 of the commencement of the Yar ‘Adua Administration in the beginning of major federal funding initiatives to address these issues, which is collectively packaged and address in several initiative to booster youth sensitization and National identity. These trends accelerated during the 2008, as did national rates of poverty, economic degradation, and other bad government policies which indeed has been instrumental to violence; hence unfortunate returns to Nation building. In the summary put forward by (Nicholas Idemudia et al (2006) An Essay on the Nigerian Political society :)

Yet again, with the impressive research conducted in the early part of 1995 – 1996 by tow foremost American scholars and researchers;

Changes in socialization forces that have historically nurtured the development of children – especially in the family – necessitate reconceptualization of school and community practices to support the family in its mission to raise successful children (Hernandez, 1995, from Weissberg & Greenberg, 1997: 5).

Any Youth Development and Outreach Program should seek to promote the participation and leadership of Nigerian Youths and young people in the development process of nation building. The purpose wherefore should be to highlight the value that young people can play in the effort to build a region with stable democracies, sustainable economies, and equitable societies. By establishing alliances with the public and private sectors, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), and youth, the government and all stakeholders should emphasize participation and leadership, entrepreneurial development, technology, and community service to the end of:

Empowering young people to become involved in their personal development and that of their communities, and advocating youth development and participation as an integral part of development; mainstreaming youth development and participation throughout the nation’s Ministry of Youths Affairs operations, and promoting inter-organisational partnerships to advance youth development and participation.

Although is difficult to implement at first hand, yet with systematic efforts to enforce actualization, the government through what this research material can offer give attention to issues which will turn out as effective than any other implementation one may think fit for Youth awareness campaign strategy.

Activities should include:

(1) YOUTH AND CAPACITY BUILDING: Capacity building, which involves creating training, initiatives and projects that develop the managerial, technical, entrepreneurial, and leadership skills of youth, so that they might become actors in the development process rather than the subjects of that process. Facilitation of communication among youth in the form of a regional network of more than 13.5 Million youth leaders and social entrepreneurs across Nigeria actively engaged in socio-economic activities who will serve as agents for development in their communities should be a government at all levels investment planning. In the area of outreach and communications, the creation of public awareness among the general public, government agencies, and the non-profit and private sectors on the contributions and value of youth participation and development. In addition, the programme should develop communication tools and promote the best practices and model programmes of youth development through conferences, audiovisual materials, publications, television programming, press articles, a quarterly newsletter, and The Youth Development and Outreach website such as those of the National Youth Council of Nigeria and several others.

(2) INTER-ORGANISATIONAL COLLABORATION: The creation of strategic alliances with public, private, and non-profit sectors to advocate for effective youth participation as agents for development in that region through information exchange, project collaboration, resource mobilisation, and dissemination of best practices promotion of the importance of Inter-Regional collaboration and inter-agency partnerships to better respond to the needs of youth representation of the MYA in the Geopolitical Working Group on Youth Development (GPWGYD)), a consortium of National donor agencies (such as philanthropist, Governments, and national NGOs) that supports new approaches to positive youth development and participation in Niger Delta and Nigeria as a Nation. Intra-agency mainstreaming, that is, the development of internal alliances with other departments and MYA parastatal Offices to integrate youth development and participation into the Federal government through the MYA’s mission and project pipeline, and Policy advocacy and formulation that promotes a supportive policy environment for youth development and participation by engaging in policy formulation initiatives with other partners.

YOUTH ACTIVE PARTICIPATION IN NATION BUILDING

It is now obvious that the future of Nigeria lies in good leadership and those responsible are without dispute young leaders. We all agree that good governance, democracy, constitutionalism and nation building are heavily shaped by the quality of a country’s politics. If the future of Nigeria lies in the youth, how then can space be created in the mainstream politics to realize it? Let us take the antecedent of Ghanaian political scene for example.

The overarching goal of the present Administration’s initiative is to mobilize and harness the abundant resources of Nigeria’s youth towards improving the quality of life in cities and towns with a view to empower vulnerable urban youth groups for improved socio-economic inclusion and development.

Imperatively, a new dawn has emerged where the luxury of comfortably sitting back and complaining as youth has long gone. Nigeria cannot continue being a continent of succession without successors, youth leaders are the best alternative. With regard to the researches conducted over time, both in Nigeria, United States, Europe, Asia, The Caribbean and South America, some of the forward include:

o Legal backing through Political Party Bills, a strong National Youth Policy and lobbying for Affirmative Action Bills for the youth (The MYA has through the Federal initiative calculated efforts to make this possible amidst its National Agenda).

o Strategies on resource mobilization to support potential youth election candidates, civic education with a special focus on the critical role of youth, networking and coordination of youth activities to form a platform where we speak in one voice and push our agenda, working with media for the benefit of youth and building their capacity as leaders who work with and for the people they represent and thus, the community at the grassroots. Encourage youth to join sound political parties.

o Youth have to develop good leadership skills and learn from others. Practice leadership that enables positive transformation in our countries.

o Focus and scope of leadership should not be limited to politics and national level; it should transcend boundaries into regional and international levels. We should be able to have competent youth representatives in such bodies. It is imperative to adapt universally accepted value systems, broaden our knowledge by exposing ourselves to what youth leaders and leaders from other age-groups and countries are engaged in, learn and adapt what works best.

In order to implement the youth initiative both nationally and locally, all the stakeholders in youth awareness and mobilisation should kick-off with their own style of campaign coupled with statutory funding; where agenda are specified and accessed by a committee. A key focus of these partnerships will be to take the local initiatives of youth nationally as expression by the Mission statement of the National Youth Council of Nigeria (NYCN) and the National Youth Initiative Forum (NYIF), and this is to ensure it bring them all, collectively to a level in which they can be shared with other youth, researchers and policy makers. This effort is unique in its approach in that it starts from the belief that youth are agents of change within their communities. Most development programmes see youth as being the problem, on whom development programmes can fix. They treat youth as passive receptors, unable to act, and needing to be acted upon. This in recent time have been refuted, gnashed at and fought with the last youth blow ever known. It is unacceptable, and any political process that encourages such a misconception and misrepresentation of the ideology of the youth as the fountain of nation building is doomed to fail, and research indicates that such a process will continue to fail.