Sustainable Construction: The Future of Commercial Development

Sustainability is a significant issue of our times. Considering the social as well as the environmental benefits resulting from sustainable development, it is a no-brainer to direct all concerted efforts towards this notable cause. Sustainability can be defined as the ability to fulfill today’s needs without affecting the ability to fulfill tomorrow’s needs.

Sustainable development is recently being actively pursued by several developers and planners; the following are the primary factors that have contributed to its relevance, awareness and prominence:

o Some countries have made it a legal requirement and included sustainable development in the regional and local policies.

o Agencies are setting standards for sustainable development and are making efforts to promote it.

o The UK government has included sustainable development in its policy among other environmental issues like carbon dioxide emission reduction.

The UK government has made some remarkable progress in light of the recent trend towards sustainable development. It has defined a set of indicators that measure the quality of life; these include social, economic and environmental issues. The ratings on these indicators help measure how well a project is faring on the sustainable development scale.

Sustainable development is not an option for high-profile projects alone; efforts are being made to make it increasingly more feasible for all project types and budgets. Sustainable development includes the use of sustainable materials, resources, and design which includes the location, orientation, structure, systems, construction, use and also the eventual disposal of waste. All these elements are significant and in order for sustainable development to initiate and flourish, all or at least a few should be sustainable.

Sustainability does not indicate that the elements should simply have the “recyclable” label. Each person involved at every step of the process should work to ensure that the recyclable products actually get recycled.

Design of a project is the chief consideration that establishes whether a project will really meet the sustainable development requirements. The various decisions involved throughout this comprehensive and cumbersome process will determine the quality of products and resources that will be available to the project team. As we are still early in the course of sustainable development, an approach of trying and learning from the results is needed to arrive at the “perfect” combination for a sustainable development project. The following are among the various considerations for sustainability:

o Resource extraction and depletion

o Land use

o Waste disposal

o Contamination of ground water and surface water

o Global warming

o Pollution of air, water, noise etc.

o Economic development

o Impact on communities

o Environmental degradation

o Habitat destruction

Our current method of construction and approaching a development project is taking a toll on the environment. To name a few impacts:

o Extraction of required materials consumes the rapidly-depleting non-renewable resources

o Waste generated is disposed into the sea or landfills

o Resulting pollution affects the atmosphere and the quality of life

o Waste of energy due to poor construction and rapid failing designs

The major factor that drives people towards or away from a sustainable development project is the cost. In an attempt to compete and win a contract, builders offer extremely low prices. This strategy, however, has some very adverse affects and, if not checked immediately, can lead to extremely harsh consequences for the environment and for the people.

Solutions to this problem have been ascertained and the implementation of these solutions requires a strong will and a commitment to improve the conditions and thereby, make a difference in the world. Although the economic cost of alternatives to sustainable development is low, the costs to the environment and the people are much higher. These costs include a reduced quality of life, dangerous health impacts, polluted air and many more. The sooner we realize the relevance of sustainable development, the better we will be at taking steps to flip the situation in our favor. Either we choose to get away with the monetary costs and pay the environmental costs or we learn to take responsibility and consequently, pay the economic costs for a better and healthier environment. Soon, the costs shall disappear into a better and healthier quality of life.

Another way to look at the costs might provide the required motivation to commit oneself to this approach. The economic costs that seem additional at present will transform into nothing. In a matter of a couple years, sustainable development will be the norm and the way of life and at this time, the owners of sustainable projects will be enjoying the edge. The extra costs will become savings then. Realizing the potential and benefits of sustainable development is an asset in itself and those who act intelligently on the available information will benefit.

The sustainable development solution is a choice at the moment but soon enough, this choice will turn into a mandatory obligation. And perhaps, then might be too late to reverse the damage that has been done and to correct the actions. We should take responsibility for our actions and should follow the sustainable development approach as this is a decision we will be proud of. Acquiring this approach is not just the rightful decision that will prove rewarding for ourselves but it is also the selfish decision. In no time, sustainable development will become the required standard for urban, suburban, residential as well as commercial development.

How Will People Without A Lot of Money Survive the Coming Economic Turmoil?

I have been reading and hearing a lot of discussion lately about the very real potential for a serious economic collapse of the U.S. economy. This discussion is not coming from government, industry or the wealthy one percent. For them this is an inconvenient discussion, and does not work with their plans and positions of wealth and power.

When you look at what is happening around the developed world, you see very similar economic issues, mostly tied to debt. Along with Greece, other European countries are also struggling with the real potential of economic calamity.

The U.S. is definitely not immune to the possibility of what is know as hyper inflation. This is where the costs of everyday goods go through the roof. The result is the loss in value of the American dollar. If this happens, the dollar will only buy a fraction of what it can buy today.

The scary issue here is that this collapse can happen rapidly.

The big question is what can an average person of average means do, to stay afloat.

Let me tell you a story about how I believe it is possible to minimize the discomfort that will occur from hyper inflation and a serious economic collapse.

I do not have a lot of money, I do have some equity in real estate and a little savings. I have been a self employed artist for most of my adult life. The income from my art business slipped down and away a few years ago during the Bush era. Since then I have survived by doing a little of this and little of that. My wife and I have a home based network marketing business. I have created some income from buying, selling and remodeling real estate, but that stopped being reasonable a couple of years ago with the housing crash. I have come to realize that due to this downward economic spiral, I needed to re-look at my already simple lifestyle. I looked to see what else I could do to lower the cost of my lifestyle. Admittedly, being an environmentalist I also want to live as softly, with as small a foot print as I can, so the simpler the lifestyle, the better.

In order to do more than just barely survive, first we have to simplify our lives. We must learn to need and want less. We can learn to get our enjoyment and entertainment from lower cost or free sustainable sources. We live in a time of unbelievable over consumption of all kinds of goods, including expensive food from all over the world. We will need to rely on local products and local food sources. Part of the change that will be coming has to do with the transportation of goods across the world. We will see that slow way down and goods from far away will be extremely expensive. At least until new sustainable energy sources are implemented that change the cost and environmental damage from worldwide transportation of goods.

We can cut our energy use way down by being super conscious about conserving. Where ever possible we can use systems that do not require a lot of electricity or fuel. Consider walking or riding a bike instead of exclusively driving everywhere. Use a clothes line to dry clothes instead of only using a dryer. Recycle everything possible. If you have the space and ability, grow a garden and do some food preparation and storage; like drying fruit and vegetables. Grow extra food to trade for things you need. Create community around you and develop a system for sharing and trading.

If you have some assets, consider converting them into cash, land or precious metal like gold or silver. You will need assets that are less effected by the crash of the currency and hyper inflation.

Having your own home business offering something people need and want will prepare you for a possible loss of employment. The unemployment rate is going to go way up. In some European countries there is now 30 and 40% unemployment. In the U.S. 9% unemployment is already causing a lot of pain and discomfort for a lot of people. Imagine 40% unemployment. Do not think because it has not happened in your life time that it cannot happen.

This may all sound like extreme paranoia or the rantings of a nut. It is not. Look around and start reading and educating yourself about all the signs that are out there. We are quickly reaching tipping points that will cause a domino effect.

To be very clear, I am not talking about the total end of the human race or the end of the U.S. culture. I am talking about some serious hard times for the vast majority of the world population. Those that heed the warnings and create some sort of plan to prepare themselves, both mentally and physically, will be in a much better position to ride through these changes.

I have heard it said that in one measure of the effects from global financial instability, people in the third world will suffer the most. Another measure says that actually much of the third world poor will not suffer as much, because they already live such simple lifestyles that the coming changes will effect them less. They do not depend on a vast complicated infrastructure that is based on massive material consumption and energy use. It is people of moderate income and the poor, living in the modern high tech culture that will feel the most dramatic changes. Especially in the big cities.

Making plans to understand and deal with these changes makes total sense if you are looking at the whole picture of what is happening world wide.

The economic collapse will be a result of a variety of issues that are coming together like a perfect storm.

The following are are some of the Issues and events that are likely, possible or already exist:

They include:

Over population is one of the main drivers and is a tipping point.

Rising national and world wide debt.

The exhausting of the worlds resources, including fresh water.

So far, there is no real plan for implementing alternative sustainable energy sources on a mass scale.

The effects of global warming and the potential economic fallout from major natural disasters is very real.

Hyper inflation and the failure of the U.S. dollar will effect economies all over the world.

Our completely out of control dependence on oil will come to haunt us.

An out of control healthcare system with no real safety net is an economic nightmare.

The potential massive disruptive effects of any wide spread electrical failure will cause a massive economic freeze.

Most of these issues are happening or have a serious potential of happening as I write this article. They all amount to massive economic out put that is unsustainable.

There is a lack of will to promote any serious lifestyle changes on the part of the political leaders. Even average people seem to be in denial. Unfortunately it appears that people in the U.S. will have to suffer to a very extreme degree before they decide to take action and demand change.

If you heed the warning signs that are all around us; if you take a critical and honest look at the sustainability of the direction in which we are headed; it is clear that we are headed for some serious changes in how we live on this planet. Being prepared by making preparations now, will make a huge difference in how you and your family are personally effected by these changes.

I chose to write this article because I am concerned for my fellow citizens and the population of our planet. It takes time to institute lifestyle changes. We have to mentally change our perspectives and physically change how we live day to day. It takes time to make changes, we are all up against some time lines for action.

I don’t plan on waiting till it is to late to start making changes. Learning to live with lifestyle changes also takes time. Now is the time to take action.

Recycling Plastic Makes Economic and Environmental Sense

Plastics products are ubiquitous throughout the world. As dependency upon these light weight and durable products increased, so too has the need for global innovation in recycling technologies. Over the decades recycling companies developed a variety of processes to turn discarded plastics into hundreds of products from paint brushes to rugs and pillows, boat hulls and railroad ties.

Calling the Consumer
The greatest challenge to recycling manufacturers is educating and engaging the public. About 75 percent of Americans recycle newspaper and cardboard while little more than 25 percent recycle plastic. Industry analysts think this low response rate might be due to a lack of understanding about the coding on recyclable plastics – the small triangle with a number in the center – that identifies what kind of plastic an item is.

The most frequently recycled plastics of the seven groups of polymer plastics are PET 01,used in soft drink bottles and smaller jars; PE-HD 02, a harder and more durable plastic used in milks bottles and large trash bags; and PE-LD 04 that’s tough yet flexible and used in frozen food bags, flexible container lids and squeeze bottles.

Although the recycling rate of these and other products is not yet impressive, the numbers have been steadily rising since 1990. In 2006, about 2.2 billion pounds of PET plastic bottles were recycled and 928 million pounds of HDPE (High Density Polyethylene) containers made it to recyclers.

Innovating PET Production
As awareness of the environmental damage done by polymers increased, so too did the urgency to encourage recycling. At the same time, experimentation with processing and application rose. For example, according to a CNN report, a Ph.D. in India, Dr. S. Madhu, included shredded and melted plastic in a roadway surfacing mix. Working for the Kerala Highway Research Institute, Madhu mixed the plastic with aggregate and bitumen to create a surface that withstands the pounding of annual monsoon seasons.

Working in a highly regulated environment, conventional recycling manufacturers focus on producing a long list of common products. Although processes vary, they generally follow a common methodology. First, plastics are sorted according to their PET identification number. This is often done before the recycled products reach the manufacturer. The “dirty” PET containers are also cleaned of labels, glue and other residual materials. A dirty regrind of the PET then goes to re-claimers who process the material into a form that can be used by manufacturers. Re-claimers further clean the materials of contaminants and materials that are lighter than the plastic. The final flakes of PET are washed with a special detergent that gets rid of glues, food or dirt.

Next, the PET materials are further treated with processes that separate the heavier PET particles from the lighter ones – this is called the float-sink stage. The plastics are then dried and ready to become new products in the hands of manufacturers throughout the world.

But, new methods are constantly being developed to recycle PET products, including a de-polymerization process that “reverses” the chemical process used to make the polymer. There are pilot projects using this method, as well as other innovative processes to make plastic recycling more environmentally friendly and economical.

Demand for Recycled Products
The importance of recycled PET and HDPE cannot be ignored. The latter, heavier PET is used to make building materials that become backyard decks that last longer than wood; it becomes lawn furniture, trash cans, office products, buckets, safety cones and much more. HDPE can also be used to manufacture above and below ground water storage tanks that withstand decades of use.

Of five major classes of PET plastics, the most high-end use is to manufacture new PET bottles and containers. Other classes include plastic sheeting or plastic that’s used for molding small items such as scoops for laundry detergent; strapping materials for packaging and transportation; resins that are used in molds for automobile components; and material that’s combined to make fibers for carpeting, fabrics and fiber fillings.

Recycled PET can show up in unexpected places such as business cards, sleeping bags, baseball caps and the welcome mat at your front door.

In the Hands of the Consumer
Ultimately, it’s all up to the consumer. Awareness of the environmental benefits of recycling plastic and the viability of manufacturing with recycled PET can mitigate environmental damage and support a global industry that returns economical and useful products to the marketplace.

In the U.S., many municipal governments have made it easier for consumers to recycle plastic. Cities accept all plastic products with the recycle symbol and do the sorting themselves before shipping off for further processing. The consumer doesn’t have to deal with separating PET numbers or peeling off labels. Many states have passed legislation commonly known as “bottle bills” that charge a small fee for plastic containers. There is greater value to the consumer to recycle when there is the incentive of a redemption value. Some communities have “drop off” recycling centers and others have “buy back” centers that pay consumers for recyclable materials.

Whatever the method of recycling or the process that recreates value from discarded PET products, it’s clear that the public, governments and industry share a financial and environmental stake in the practice of plastic recycling.

Affordable And Environmentally Friendly Alternative Fuel Sources

There are programs that have been created to help in creating a new market for alternative fuels that have been discovered around the world. These programs promote and create markets for highly developed, renewable and alternative energy and transportation technology. Their main target is to provide an incentive for opportunities that manage fuel resources across the world. They support economic improvement, improve the environment and boost the quality of lives.

Alternative Fuel Sources

Alternative fuels are any substance that can be used to replace normal fuel. Some of the normal fuels include coal, propane, natural gas, petroleum, and fossil fuels. Some of these fuels are produced domestically making many nations self dependent. The government promotes this alternative fuel program by offering tax incentives to vehicle owners who buy and use the alternative fuels. Some of them include ethanol which is produced from corn, biodiesel that is made from animal fats and vegetable oil, propane, hydrogen, and natural gas.

Alternative fuel Automobiles

Many people are getting interested in the alternative fuel vehicles. These vehicles help in reducing the use of petroleum and emissions of vehicles. Biodiesel is one type that is being used in the automobiles. Power pug-in electric vehicles use electricity to make them move. Ethanol is mixed with gasoline to make it suitable for use in the vehicle. Others are hydrogen, natural gas and propane.

Alternate Energy Sources

These alternate energy sources help in reducing amount of toxins which are the by products of energies. They help to preserve many natural resources. They are used to preserve the many natural resources in the surrounding. Some of the alternate energy sources include wind power, solar power and geothermal energy.

Electrical Generation using coal

Producing electricity using coal helps in improving the thermal efficiency of the power stations. The emission plays an important role of removing carbon monoxide at a global level. Use of coal in producing electricity is increasing in most developing countries making the other forms dormant. Many power stations are increasing the production of electricity with coal in countries like Australia. There has been a big hope of improving this mode of electricity production because of the reduced prices it has.

Hydrogen Fuel cell cars

Hydrogen has replaced gasoline that is used in many vehicles. Many vehicle users depend on the dirty fossil fuel for fuel. Introduction of hydrogen fuel cars will assist in reducing the use of such fuels. Hydrogen is clean, efficient and abundant putting it in a better position than others like fossil fuel. It is disadvantaged by storage which is very difficult.

Biofuel Cars

Many refueling stations have started adapting to the new fuel. Although biofuel’s economy is still very low, they do not cause any damage to vehicles engines making them good for use in the vehicle industry.

Biodiesel cars

Biodiesel is not good for many vehicles because it destroys the fuel system of a car. It is very incompatible compared to biofuel. Any person using these biodiesel cars have to change the compatible parts of the car to make it effective.

A Common Sense Economic and Market Structure Model for Developing Countries

Introduction

For more than thirty years developing countries’ economic problems have created major financial crises in the international community. Developing countries have remained so due to their low-income economies. African and Middle East countries live in ethnic diverse communities and are subject to political instability and corruption than Asia and Latin American countries that live in more homogeneous communities. There is more cost involved in a population of workers and who belong to different ethnic groups because of diversity, cultural differences, religion and language. The purpose of this economic development model is to address economic stability, the problems (value inhibitors), solutions (value drivers), the strategies and implementations of the economic enhancement in order to help the developing countries be less dependent on developed countries. So many studies have been conducted on developing countries, but none of the studies have focused on how the developing countries could apply or use the economic models with less participation of the industrialized countries. World Bank and United Nations ought to examine minutely any potential foreign aid application while focusing on this model for developing countries. This model will enhance in devising a strategic means of monitoring the developing countries before distributing fund to those that may not use the model or practice noncompliance. The practical sense of the use of this model is to elevate the developing countries to economic success and stability, and reduce their dependency on developed countries.

Role of leadership

In developing countries, most leaders behave and think differently. Although, these may not be tolerated by developed countries, they are the norm and are based on their ethnicity, beliefs, religion, culture, social classes, and assumption of supremacy. Negotiating and managing conflicts in developing countries is a matter of understanding the genetic makeup of that country. Diversity may create needs but these needs do not have to be neglected in order to create balance among the ethnic or sectarian groups. A Western countries’ style of negotiating and resolving conflicts may not be applicable in the developing countries where religion and ethnicity have continuously impacted the leadership in those countries. Hence, the inefficient and ineffective leadership have led to social development and economic neglect that have caused the worse economy and poverty in those areas. If politics are set aside and economic benefits are put in the forefront by these developed countries, the chances of conflict resolution will be increased.

Leaders who have vision for change may think about what the impact the economic and market development will have in the long-run, and in the locations and in the life of its citizens. The social problems in Malaysia exist because of the ethnic Chinese who are not Muslim in a country where over 90 percent of the population is Muslim.

In developed countries, situations create focus on civilization and leadership, where civilization shapes leaders and leaders shape civilization. Power is treated as a shared resource, but in most developing countries coercion is the system used by leaders. Leaders use physical, economic, and social threats and punishments to induce change in followers for the sake of the leaders. The leaders therefore have become power wielders. These leadership problems have impacted the economic and market structure of the countries. Hence, a new model may mean a step to a new and better way of life for all the developing countries. The Western part of the Asia continent is predominantly Muslims and still have untapped resources that have not been explored because of dictatorship, politics, religion, culture, beliefs, and diversity. Exploring these countries and helping them stabilize will transcend to trading with other developing countries, which will in turn pull them out of poverty, instability, and create peace among the sectarian and ethnic groups.

Asia

Before the coming of the tsunami in December 26 2005, the South Asian countries were poor and developing. Both the South and East Asia have untapped economic sources. These potential raw materials need to be explored in order to help develop the economic and market structure of the region. The tsunami destroyed the infrastructure, economy, and the lives of the people of the South Asian countries. The 6.3 in magnitude earthquake that hit the central java of Indonesia on May 27, 2006 destroyed what was left of the tsunami. These countries will benefit from cash crop, livestock, and poultry production because of their adequate weather and availability of natural water, which will not require a high technology in order to irrigate the farmland. Mechanized farming will need to be introduced and implemented to aid in maximizing production of agricultural products. The Eastern part of South Korea has a comparative advantage over industrial, commercial, and manufacturing production. Producing and trading on building, automobile, motorcycle, and other petty materials in the form of buying and selling will enhance in the development of the market setting and economy. This will help in the stabilization of the East and South Asian countries. A stable economy will help resolve and manage conflict in these countries that have different ethnic groups and history of diversity. The economic and market structure may also aid in the stability of the leadership, political and social system. The environmental problems may need to be addressed in order to guard against pollution or any unhealthy by products or waste materials that may cause harm to people or have short or long term health problems or may be fatal to people. If these countries are stable, they will attract foreign investments rather than needing foreign aid. The military disturbances in East Timor are not helping the economic and the market structure of the young independent country.

The four factors that determine the economic growth are labor, capital, land, and Entrepreneurship. Developing countries have more labor force with lower wages than developed countries and yet their economic growth is still lower than that of the developed countries. Capital is another problem facing developing countries. They need resources such as equipments, machines, factories, and money to work with. Labor without capital is synonymous to guns without bullets. Capital will also represent an investment that will pay off in the future. Most developing countries have untapped resources such as oil, gold, diamond, minerals, forests, and water that represent land which by themselves cannot stimulate economic growth unless they are explored and converted to goods and services. Technology enhances economic growth. A group of agricultural researchers from Texas A&M University and University of California-Davis acquired a four-year grand of $4.4 million from U.S Agency for International Development’s Mission to Afghanistan eGrazing. This discovery will aid the livestock herders to successfully tend to cattle, sheep, horses and goats. If this system had been in place, it may have made an impact during the tsunami in Indonesia. Political and social factors that inhibit Economic Growth are corruption, instability, lack of leadership and administrative skills, population growth, and lack of business enterprises.

Africa

African countries are very poor and in dare need of economic and market structure development. Before these countries go global, they may to have sufficient needs of life by taking comparative advantage of their sources of raw material. Some have cash crops that need to be irrigated, some have livestock and poultry that need to be technologically upgraded, and market structure that needs to be redesigned, developed and implemented. The improvement of the agriculture will help the poor farmers send their children to school, build infrastructure, develop the quality of institutions, and make a smooth run of transportation.

Middle East

Middle East region is a turbulence area because of instability associated with religion, oil, dictatorship, and developed countries’ influence. The Iraq war has devastated the whole region, and couple with the Israel, Palestinian, and Lebanese conflict, which has created further economic drawbacks that amount in billions of dollars. The destruction of the infrastructures, and the lost of lives have sent the economy of Lebanese country decades backwards.

Latin America

Development in Latin Americans countries could stem from agriculture, forestry and fishing, to mining, and manufacturing. These Latinos can help in building their countries rather than trying to immigrate to United States of America. If guided, they will improve their countries’ economy and help in the marketing of agricultural, manufacturing and other natural resources. Immigrants spend much time in the state of California farms, Illinois factories, North Carolina, and areas in the north east of United States of America working mostly in food industries. These efforts can be redirected to Latin America in order to develop the entire area.

Political struggles, lack of administrative skills, and power supremacy have strangled the economic and market structure of most countries in Latin America. For decades the Latinos have traveled north of the border to United States of America in search of better lives. This economic situation has resulted in the deaths and mutilations of people trying to enter United States of America. The smugglers who are known as the “coyotes” have made huge profits for attempting to transport these illegal Latinos across the border. It is very dangerous ventures because of the hot temperature, train transportation, unhygienic felt, bad weather, lack of food, water, and other unknown dangers along the road to the border. Immigrants spend months traveling to the border and most times do not make it to United States because they are caught and send back south of the border. Most gang groups have resorted to kidnapping wealthy Latin Americans living in the United States side of the border for huge ransoms, demand thousands of dollars in exchange to the kidnapped victims and most of the times these victims are killed. Families are separated due to fractured economy when men live their families for years in search of money for food in the north of the border. Income is not redistributed to the population, the rich gets richer while the poor gets poorer. The people of Latin Americas deserve more from their leaders and their natural resources, which has not happened because of corruptions and drug kingpins who have operated by intimidation, coercion, and fear.

The Four “Pies” facing developing countries

Poverty stems from lack of education, opportunities, and low literacy level. These countries do not put too much emphasis in education as they resort to marrying more than one wife and having too many children. Farming and herding have been their main source of food production and livelihood. Ethnicity is attributed to too many tribes, languages, and dialects. It has also contributed to lack of trust amongst different ethnic groups due to lack of understanding each other’s culture and tradition. They have become one country but different people. Instability is created by lack of a stable government by corrupted leaders, who always come to power for the purpose of stealing funds. That ultimately leads to no mandate to build infrastructure, and develop the economy and market for the country. When people’s needs are not met, most of the times in developing countries, rebellion begins when the government neglects a certain group of people. When people are deprived of the necessities of life while the other group has it all because of their ethnicity and religious sect, it creates tensions that lead to a “time-bomb” ready to explode. These most times cause conflicts that are attributed to hatred, sabotage, riots, revolution, and deaths. This is common in the developing countries where corruption and venality have played a role due to self-centeredness on the part of the leaders. Leaders therefore resort to intimidation of their citizens and thereby control these countries by coercion.

17 Strategies for implementing economic and market structure in developing countries

(1)A comprehensive education across the country needs to be instituted. This may be in the local dialect and language in order to make it easy for the citizens of that area. Assessment test of individuals’ talent and abilities need to be explored, recognized and documented to be sure where these individuals’ maximum potentials lie. A program needs to be instituted in order to teach the citizens methods of family planning and birth control. Individuals also need to understand the social and economic benefit of the birth control.

(2)Some individuals may have ability in agricultural work (Crops/livestock/Poultry). Locations with fertile lands need to be located and utilized for crops and livestock, and those areas without fertile land may need to be used based on its comparative advantage, such as poultry, storage of byproducts, and market areas.

(3)Supermarkets are to be constructed in all densely populated locations or urban cities to enable the young men and women find and keep jobs. The stores will consist of three shifts so that students can work and at the same time go to school and do their schoolwork. These markets will be located in the areas where people can afford to shop. A Wal-mart (USA) approach will be most appropriate in these locations. The four utilities of market will have to be considered and instituted as the main reason for the location of the supermarkets.

(4)Consideration of the product that people will want, the price to set for the product, the place that will be appropriate for the supermarkets and their nearness to the people, and how the promotion of the product will be conducted in order to reach the consumers and customers.

(5)The nomadic approach of rearing, transporting, and selling livestock will be changed to using trucks to transport them if it involves long distance in order to avoid spreading of any diseases such as mad cow disease and other diseases that come from livestock feces as they are transported though out the country. Trading locations where buyers and sellers meet, and the days to meet are to be established in both rural and urban areas.

(6)Areas where people still live in poverty, a trade by barter may be established so as to allow the farmers who want to exchange items from their farms to bargain for exchange. This short-run method will continue until the economic development is in place and running.

(7)Foreign investment and property rights need to be considered as part of encouraging investments and savings in order to stimulate the economic growth. This method may help the developing countries to invest less money on capital goods, create more competitive markets, and in turns reduce or eliminate corruption.

(8)Establish local leaders by ethnicity, who will act as representatives or middlemen between the government and their ethnic group. These local leaders may be selected by group they represent and approved by the government to ensure they are working on behalf of the people they represent and not for their own self-interest. In addition, the African experts may be contracted to help establish the boundaries of no corruption.

(9)Individuals have certain religious beliefs and different ways of thinking, and as such need to be segregated according to their sect for the benefit of market structure and economic development. Individuals who understand that certain groups have designated times in which they pray will have no problem doing business with such groups. This may reduce tensions for those who understand the culture of those religious group, and for those, who do not there will be tensions and uneasiness, which is the reason for grouping citizens according to their religious sect.

(10)Government need to institute “watch dog groups” in order to police the programs and to make certain that the programs are in place and running. A 3-year trial needs to be established for any program of economic and market structure that is implemented for these countries. This is enough time to evaluate the program in place in order to ensure its workability. Experts in Africa need to be involved in all phases of implementation in order to combat corruption and promote stability.

(11)Poverty may be reduced if adequate and stable structure for economy and market is established, and the government leaders via the local leaders address all citizen’s problems. The essential necessities — housing, clothing and food – may be the top priorities for these countries in order to reduce the poverty.

(12)Professionals and skilled workers are to be encouraged through issuance of incentives in order to motivate them to stay and reside in these developing countries and help in the development of these countries rather than leaving for developed countries. Mass exodus from these developing countries only harms and delays the development of these countries.

(13)Construction of infrastructure such as roads, buildings, and bridges are important for the economic and market structure of developing countries. Food products and other necessities of life can be transported to their respective destinations as quickly as they are needed when good infrastructure is in place. It may also encourage in foreign investments. Investors will prefer to invest in stable countries to unstable countries.

(14)Construction and installation of adequate running water in developing countries and to all parts of the countries also will help in building stable economic and market structure. It will help in curtailing diseases such as typhoid’s and malaria that usually come from unclean water. It will also help the children to focus in education and literacy programs rather than traveling miles upon miles to fetch water from the streams and wells. Some of these children die in taking these water-fetching adventures.

(15)Installation of electrical system may help in the growth of communities. Businesses cannot operate adequately where electricity is lacking. As such, these countries will require electricity in all areas of the countries as a form of economic development and market structure in order to help businesses function and grow, help in the food storage, and eradicate waste of food products that would otherwise be stored safely in cold rooms and refrigeration.

(16)Social Organizations need to be introduced to help the poor get out of poverty, and give them the opportunity to operate their own small businesses. This type of organizations are set up by the government as not-for-profit organizations, and the purpose is to develop the people’s business skills and issue them interest free start-ups loans to enable them manage their own businesses, which in turn lead them to poverty free. They will guided them to the type of businesses to open, how to open them, where to open them, and why they should open those kinds of businesses.

(17)The potential goals may be achieved by enforcing the use of this model as a condition of receiving funding or foreign aid. As a way to check and ensure that monies do go to what they are intended for, developing countries pledge to use and implement this model. This model will check and police the development of the projects. The intention of this requirement is not to discriminate against developing countries, but to help the citizens of those countries as they have no way of benefiting from these funding and foreign aid that usually end up abused, misdirected, and misused for other personal and private purposes by the leaders due to corruption and venality.

Who Are the Developing Countries

World Bank defined developing countries as those with low-income economies with per capita incomes of $755 or less. World Bank is an International Organization that categorizes such countries as developing countries and also issues loans to them.

Economical and Ecological Solutions by Insulation

A frigid cold winter can do a lot more than just choke up your driveway. If your home is not geared up with good insulation systems to keep it warm, you will end up spending an enormous amount of money in paying your heating bills. Thus, one way to arm your house to face the winter in full health is by covering your house with the right gear using the help of good insulation suppliers whose supplies will ensure you keep affordably warm.

To make your house right, there is nothing more important than to get the right insulation suppliers. Good suppliers are ones that provide their products to installers, builders and home developers and also have a good network to be able to supply their insulation products to your doorstep. An essential quality that every consumer will look for from insulation suppliers are that the product is of high quality and should be made from formaldehyde free eco friendly material at competitive prices that will give the product an easy buy appeal.

Though many insulation manufacturers prefer formaldehyde based products, this chemical can cause various health hazards like nausea, difficulty in breathing and asthma in high concentrations. It is also known to cause severe allergic reactions and is also suspected to be an agent that can cause cancer. But certain insulation manufacturers now provide fiber glass that has reduced or does not emit volatile organic products like formaldehyde. Thus now the eco friendly and hazard free solution is to utilize glass wool based insulation products that is made by a coat of glass fibers and a highly specialized resin that gives it its moldable quality.

There are a range of advantages in using glass wool based insulation like good dimensional stability and greater strength. It also delivers a high thermal performance and is also heat resistant and doesn’t catch fire easily. Moreover, a number of insulation importers also prefer to use it as it has light weight and is incredibly flexible and its low ability to absorb moisture avoids microbial growth that finds a lot of takers as it will stay in a great working condition for a long time.

It is a great resource for energy preservation too as these glass wool based insulation systems will provide low energy bills and also control moisture to provide a better indoor air quality. The formaldehyde free feature is famous among most insulation suppliers and so they promote these insulators that deliver environmental satisfaction as it is prepared from materials that can be recycled after use. The recycled glass that is used in making these insulation products saves millions of cubic feet of landfill space thus ensuring a really ecological and economical solution. The only non recyclable product used in this fiber glass is sand that can be found everywhere and is also a rapidly renewable source.

While your neighbors will complain of either really high energy bills or about their children suffering constantly from allergies and health problems, you will know why your family is safe in rough winters. So go ahead and sit on your warm couch to think about the support that you have got from your insulation suppliers in ensuring that your house is protected from nature’s fury and blessed with its bounty.

Some Economic and Environmental Benefits of Plastic Recycling

Recycled plastic can be reused and employed by a wide variety of industries Nike has recently used recycled plastic materials in their world cup range. Most other leading sports retailers are following suit. The plastics recycled make stronger and more durable replacements in many cases for example the life of outdoor plastic furniture compared with more traditional wooden products is much longer.

Other spillover effects are the production of new jobs as some of these are technical in nature they may benefit the local economies as transportation costs are likely to undermine any benefits of lower labour in less developed countries. The Asian recycling industry will boom regardless of importing waste from abroad due to the massive manufacturing capacity of the Asian powerhouse. Local supply chains will be fed by new plastic products developed locally as the production wages will filter back into the local marketplaces stimulating regional growth.

This is certainly the case in the UK at present where there is a thriving recycled plastics industry which is competitive and takes advantage of the cheaper costs per tonne of transportation of recycled plastic compared with wooden or concrete alternatives in the building trades.

A growing awareness of the potential for renewable energy sources and materials in Europe and the US which has been highlighted recently by the BP oil spill which has made alternatives to oil and more carbon intensive energy sources much more attractive certainly in the eyes of a more environmentally aware group of consumers. Recycled plastics will help win over the ethically minded consumer recycled plastic does not require constant weather treatment so will reduce the strain on the environment further with no need for chemical weather treatment.

The majority of plastics are themselves now recyclable and constant technology innovation and consumer awareness will continue to push the loop closer to closure with supermarkets continuing to push for the removal of plastic carrier bags and some major high street names in the UK like Tesco offering drop off points for exhausted plastic that has been reused again and again. Similar innovations exist in the agricultural sector where farm waste plastic is used to produce agricultural plastic products and many other industries are starting to follow suit.

The consumer is becoming more aware and with more information available than ever before it is probably time you business started to look at the use of recycled plastic or any other reusable materials in a more productive manner.